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Glossary of English Grammar II: Pronouns (con't)

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Pronouns in the Nominitive Case
I
he, she
we, they
who, whoever
whoso, whosoever
Pronouns in the Nominitive Case

When to use
1. The subject of a sentence
THEY bullied there way into the club.
I love Parcheesi

2. A subject complement of a copulative verb ()
The queen is I.
The winners were THEY.

3. An appositive of another nominative
Gymnasts, he for example, are incredibly nimble.

4. A complement of the infinitive 'to be' when 'to be' has no subject.
To be SHE would be a hardship

5. After 'than' when the pronoun would use the same verb in an 'implied clause of comparison' as the subject of the sentence. ()

6. After 'than' when the pronoun is being compared or contrasted to a quality only (adjective or adverb) of the subject. ()
Pronouns in the Objective Case
me
him, her
us, them
whom, whomever
whomso, whomsoever
Pronouns in the Objective Case:

When to use
1. Objects of all kinds: -direct objects,
-indirect objects
- objects of a preposition.
- objects of gerunds, participle

Beth's father gave HER away at her wedding.

2. Subjects of infinitives
I wasn't sure whether TO KISS HIM or TO CLOBBER HIM.

3. An appositive with another object.
Dora gave James, HER BROTHER, a tie for Christmas.

4. A complement of the infintive 'to be' when 'to be' has a subject.
What I wouldn't give TO BE HER.

5. After 'than' if:
- the pronoun doesn't compare or contrast with the subject, but is being compared or contrasted to an object or complement

- the comparison features a noun or pronoun with an adjective.
Pronouns in the Possessive Case
my
your
his, her, its
our, their
whose, whosoever
Pronouns in the Possessive Case

When to Use
1. Adjectives
MY sweater looks better on Julie that it does on me.

2. The subject of a gerund
Seeing HIM is painful for Gladys.
Copulative Verbs

Copular Verbs
Verbs that usually patterns with a modifier, noun, or noun substitute that is necessary to complete the meaning of the sentence; they require a subject complement; are composed of being and linking verbs.

Being verbs:
am, are, is
was, were

Linking Verbs: Sensations:
- feel, look
- smell, sound, taste

Other linking verbs
- appear, become, continue
- get, grow, remain
- seem, stay, turn

Unusual linking verbs:
- fall, go, lay
- run, stand, work
Auxiliary verbs
One of a small set of verbs that express various shades of meaning, usually of time or voice.

Primary
be: am, are, is, was, were
do: do, does, did
have: have, has, had

Modal
can, could
may, might, must
shall, should
will, would

Marginal
dare, need
ought to, used to

Semi-auxiliaries
be going to
had better
have to
Subject Complements
A subject complement follows a linking verb and modifies or refers to the subject. A subject complement can be an adjective, a noun, a pronoun, or a word or word group acting as an adjective or noun:

A subjective complement answers the question “who” or “what” after a form of the verb “to be.” A subjective complement completes the subject.

I am a teacher, but I am not yet experienced.

"Teacher" and "experienced" are both subject complements that modify the subject "I."
Appositive
indicates a relationship between (typically) two noun phrases that refer to the same entity or overlap in their reference.

E.g.: Pirmin Ziurbriggen, the greatest ski racer of his generation, is also an accomplished dirt-biker.

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