Glossary of English Grammar I

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Classes of Nouns
1. Common= Count + Mass

2. Proper

3. Abstract: a quality, an attribute, an idea, or intangible items
common suffixes:
-ness, -ty, -th

4. Concrete: tangible items

5. Collective: refers to one thing as members of a single unit
partitive expressions
enables mass nouns to be counted

- measurments, e.g. a spoonful of; a ton of
- a piece of
- a shred of
Making nouns ending with 'consonant + y' Plural
- Change 'y' to an 'i' and add 'es'

- Exception: Proper nouns ending in 'y'
Some nouns that end with 'o'
- add 'es'
- check a dictionary
Some nouns ending in 'f' or 'fe'
- change to 'ves'
- check a dictionary
Nouns that can be either singular or plural

Look to context
fish, deer, sheep
politics, mathmatics, news
oats, ethics, headquarters
data, strata, phenomena
statistics, measles, shears
pliers, suds
Plural nouns that refer to items with two parts
- take a plural verb
- slacks, scissors, sunglasses, boxers, Daisy Dukes, trousers, britches
Noun's number depends on context referring to a group or individuals
family, tribe, choir,
band, team, fraternity, class, faculty
committee, staff, Congress
Making Nouns Plural
- add 's'

- add 'es': certain endings ()
Making Nouns Possessive
- animate() nouns= add 's'

- inanimate() nouns= 'of' structure
Pronoun defined
A word that can be substituted for a noun, noun phrase, or other pronoun without changing the meaning of the sentence
Classes of Pronouns
1. Personal: substitutes for word that refers to a person()

2. Reflexive: the subject of a sentence performs an action on itself or refers to itself in some other way.()

3. Intensive: reflexive pronouns that immediately follow a noun or prounoun ()

4. Relative: substitutes for the noun being modified by an adjective clause and relates that clause to the noun.

5. Indefinite

6. Demonstrative

7. Interrogative
Relative Pronouns
defined: connect adjective or noun clauses to other elements of a sentence.

who/whom: refers to people


which: refers to animals, things, or collective nouns referring to persons

that: refers to animals or things or people
Indefinite Relative Pronouns
Defined: they introduce noun clauses; they have indefinite antecedents

- who/whoever
- whom/whomever
- what/whatever
- whichever
Using Relative Pronouns to Introduce Nominal Relative Clauses
Defined: relative pronouns are used as noun substitutes

- who/whoever
- whom/whomever
- what/whatever
- which/whichever
- that
Singular Indefinite Pronouns
- each/either/neither
- anybody/ everybody/ nobody/ somebody
- anyone/ everyone/ no one/ someone
- anything, everything, nothing, something
- one
- another, other
- much, little
Prepositional phrases following indefinite pronouns usually do NOT influence the verb number ()
Singular or Plural Indefinite Pronouns
In cases involving a fraction or percent and the words:

- all, most, more
- part, some, such
- rest, any, none

The verb will be singular if bulk or a total number or amount is intended (mass noun), and plural if numbers are considered (count noun)
Plural Indefinite() Pronouns
- both, few
- many, others, several
Gender and Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns and noun phrases preceded by indefinite determiners (each, every, any, either, etc.) requre the singluar masculine pronoun form (he, his, him).
Demonstrative Pronouns
Defined: point out particular persons, places, or things, even though they may not be named directly

this, that
these, those


Interrogative Pronouns
Defined: are used in asking questions

- who, whom, whose
- what, which

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