Glossary of English Grammar I
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- Classes of Nouns
- 1. Common= Count + Mass
3. Abstract: a quality, an attribute, an idea, or intangible items
-ness, -ty, -th
4. Concrete: tangible items
5. Collective: refers to one thing as members of a single unit
- partitive expressions
- enables mass nouns to be counted
- measurments, e.g. a spoonful of; a ton of
- a piece of
- a shred of
- Making nouns ending with 'consonant + y' Plural
- - Change 'y' to an 'i' and add 'es'
- Exception: Proper nouns ending in 'y'
- Some nouns that end with 'o'
- - add 'es'
- check a dictionary
- Some nouns ending in 'f' or 'fe'
- - change to 'ves'
- check a dictionary
- Nouns that can be either singular or plural
Look to context
- fish, deer, sheep
politics, mathmatics, news
oats, ethics, headquarters
data, strata, phenomena
statistics, measles, shears
- Plural nouns that refer to items with two parts
- - take a plural verb
- slacks, scissors, sunglasses, boxers, Daisy Dukes, trousers, britches
- Noun's number depends on context referring to a group or individuals
- family, tribe, choir,
band, team, fraternity, class, faculty
committee, staff, Congress
- Making Nouns Plural
- - add 's'
- add 'es': certain endings ()
- Making Nouns Possessive
- - animate() nouns= add 's'
- inanimate() nouns= 'of' structure
- Pronoun defined
- A word that can be substituted for a noun, noun phrase, or other pronoun without changing the meaning of the sentence
- Classes of Pronouns
- 1. Personal: substitutes for word that refers to a person()
2. Reflexive: the subject of a sentence performs an action on itself or refers to itself in some other way.()
3. Intensive: reflexive pronouns that immediately follow a noun or prounoun ()
4. Relative: substitutes for the noun being modified by an adjective clause and relates that clause to the noun.
- Relative Pronouns
- defined: connect adjective or noun clauses to other elements of a sentence.
who/whom: refers to people
which: refers to animals, things, or collective nouns referring to persons
that: refers to animals or things or people
- Indefinite Relative Pronouns
- Defined: they introduce noun clauses; they have indefinite antecedents
- Using Relative Pronouns to Introduce Nominal Relative Clauses
- Defined: relative pronouns are used as noun substitutes
- Singular Indefinite Pronouns
- - each/either/neither
- anybody/ everybody/ nobody/ somebody
- anyone/ everyone/ no one/ someone
- anything, everything, nothing, something
- another, other
- much, little
Prepositional phrases following indefinite pronouns usually do NOT influence the verb number ()
- Singular or Plural Indefinite Pronouns
- In cases involving a fraction or percent and the words:
- all, most, more
- part, some, such
- rest, any, none
The verb will be singular if bulk or a total number or amount is intended (mass noun), and plural if numbers are considered (count noun)
- Plural Indefinite() Pronouns
- - both, few
- many, others, several
- Gender and Indefinite Pronouns
- Indefinite pronouns and noun phrases preceded by indefinite determiners (each, every, any, either, etc.) requre the singluar masculine pronoun form (he, his, him).
- Demonstrative Pronouns
- Defined: point out particular persons, places, or things, even though they may not be named directly
- Interrogative Pronouns
- Defined: are used in asking questions
- who, whom, whose
- what, which
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