Glossary of Energy in a Cell C9
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- The main energy-trapping molecule in plants is _____.
- Energy from sunlight is trapped by chlorophyll located in the _____.
- thylakoid membranes
- Chlorophyll traps _____ from sunlight.
- A green pigment that traps energy from sunlight is _____.
- Which sugar is a part of adenosine diphosphate?
- Energy is released from ATP when the bond is broken between _____.
- two phosphate groups
- Organisms need a way of storing energy because _____.
- a cell can't always immediately use all the energy it gets
- In order to move molecules in your kidneys, your body needs _____.
- In the complete process of photosynthesis, the _____.
- light reactions release oxygen
- In glycolysis, _____ molecules of ATP are used in the first step, and _____ molecules of ATP are produced in the second step.
- two, four
- In respiration, the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is _____.
- Kidneys use energy to move molecules and ions in order to keep the blood chemically balanced. This process is an example of cells using energy to _____.
- maintain homeostasis
- Which of the following equations best represents photosynthesis?
- 6CO2 + 6H2O Æ C6H12O6 + 6O2
- Leaves appear green because the green portion of the light that strikes them is _____.
- Cells store energy when _____.
- a third phosphate group is bonded to an ATP molecule
- What is the difference between an organelle and a molecule?
- An organelle is a structure in the cell that does a specific job. A molecule is a combination of atoms that are held together by chemical bonds
- What is the difference between the chloroplast and chlorophyll?
- The chloroplast is the organelle where photosynthesis takes place. Chlorophyll is a molecule that can trap light energy. Cjlorophyll is found inside the chloroplast
- The energy in glucose can be released by _____.
- Some bacteria that are adapted to live without oxygen combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce _____.
- What are the parts of adenosine diphosphate?
- two phosphate groups
- A series of reactions in aerobic respiration that begins and ends with the same 6-carbon compound is the _________________________.
- citric acid cycle
- In photosynthesis, the series of reactions that synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide and hydrogen is known as the ____________________.
- Calvin cycle
- The anaerobic process of splitting glucose to form pyruvic acid is called ____________________.
- The splitting of water during photosynthesis is ____________________.
- The passing of electrons along a series of molecules, releasing energy as they go, is known as a(n) ______________________________.
- electron transport chain
- The process by which autotrophs use energy from sunlight to build carbohydrates is called _________________________.
- Compare and contrast the terms photosynthesis and respiration.
- Both are complex groups of reactions that involve energy, require enzymes, occur in specific organelles, and involve movement of electrons. In photosynthesis, energy is stored when CO2 and H2O combine to form sugar or starch and release oxygen as a waste. In (aerobic) respiration, energy is released when sugar is broken down in the presence of oxygen; CO2 and H2O are given off as wastes.
- Compare and contrast the terms aerobic process and anaerobic process.
- Aerobic processes require oxygen; anaerobic processes do not.
- What do you think would happen to a plant's energy-trapping ability if suddenly the only pigment it contained was chlorophyll? What is your reasoning?
- The plant's energy-trapping ability would decrease because the other pigments transfer energy from colors of light that chlorophyll does not absorb well.
- How is ATP obtained from aerobic processes?
- Aerobic respiration in the mitochondria begins with the production of pyruvic acid from glycolysis. The citric acid cycle and electron transport chain produce additional ATP molecules as the carbohydrate is broken down into water and carbon dioxide.
- Predict what would happen if all the ATP production in living things suddenly ceased.
- Everything would die. All living things require a constant supply of ATP for their cell activities.
- How is energy stored in ATP?
- Energy is stored in the phosphate bonds of ATP as ATP is synthesized from other materials.
- How does the storage of energy in ATP molecules benefit a cell?
- ATP stores energy for maintaining life processes. These life processes result in work being done whenever molecules, atoms, or ions are rearranged.
- If you run or ride a bicycle as fast as you can, your muscles may begin to feel weak and have a burning sensation. Explain what is occurring that accounts for this muscle fatigue.
- The rate at which oxygen is supplied to the muscles limits the aerobic respiration that can occur. As a result, anaerobic lactic acid fermentation, changing pyruvic acid to lactic acid occurs. The buildup of lactic acid causes muscle fatigue.
- Explain what is meant by carbon fixation. During which stage of photosynthesis does this process take place?
- Carbon fixation occurs during the Calvin cycle, when an enzyme adds the carbon atom from atmospheric carbon dioxide to a 5-carbon molecule.
- In respiration, the steps following glycolysis depend upon whether oxygen is present.
- If oxygen is present, production of acetyl-CoA, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain follow in order. If no oxygen is present, either lactic acid fermentation or alcohol fermentation follows.
- Both the wine industry and the bread industry use the process of alcoholic fermentation. In what ways is the use of the process by these industries similar? In what way do the uses differ?
- Both use yeast to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. In the wine industry, the alcohol remains in the wine; the bread industry uses the carbon dioxide to make the bread dough rise.
- Maintaining body temperature, transmitting nerve impulses, movement of cilia, and bioluminescence are various activities of organisms. What requirement do these activities have in common? Why is ATP important in each activity?
- They require energy. The energy available for each activity is released by the breakdown of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate.
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