Glossary of Educational Psychology - Behaviorism

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Activity reinforcer
An opportunity to engage n a favorite activity
Antecedent response
a response that increases the liklihoon that a certain other response will follow
antecedent stimulus
a stimulus that increases the liklihood that a particular response will follow
applied behavior analysis (ABA)
the systematic application of behavioristprinciples in educational and therapeutic settings; sometimes called behavior modification, behavior therapy, or contingency management
backup reinforcer
a reinforcer tha a student can "purchase" with one or more tokes earned in a token economy
The frequency of a response before operant conditioning takes place
behavioral momentum
an increased tendency for a learner to make a particulare response immediately after making similar responses
a theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are described and explained in terms of stimulus-response relationships
classical conditioning
a form of learning whereby a new, involuntary response is acquired as a resulto of two stimuli being presented at the same time
concrete reinforcer
a reinforcer that can be touched
conditioned response (CR)
a response that, through classical conditioning, begins to elicit a particular response
a term for "learning" commonly used by behaviorist
the occurence of two or more events at the same time
a situation in which one event happens only after another event has already occurred
contingency contract
a formal agreement between a teacher and a student that identifies behaviors the student will exhibit and the reinforcers that will follow
continuous reinforcement
reinforcement of a response every time it occurs
the use of signals to indicate that a certian behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop
delay of gratification
the ability to forgo small, immediate reinforcers in order to obtain larger ones later on
a phenomenon in operant conditioning in which a student learns that a response is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of another, similar stimulus
gradual disappearance of an acquired response.
extrinsic reinforcer
a reinforcer that comes from outside the environment, rather than from within the learner
functional analysis
exzamination of a learner's inappropriate behavior and its antecedents and consequences, to determine the functions that the behavior might serve for the learner
a phenomenon in which a person learns a response to a particular stimulus and then makes the same response to similar stimuli. In classical conditioning, it involves making a conditioned response to stimuli similare to a conditioned stimulus. In operant conditioning, it involves making a voluntary response to stimuli similar to a stimulus antecedent to a response-reinforcement contigency
group contigency
a situation in which everyone in a group must make a particulaar response before reinforcement occurs
incompatible behaviors
two ore more behaviors that cannot be performed simultaneously
intermittent reinforcement
reinforcement of a resopnse only occasionally, with some occurrences of teh response going unreinforced
intrinsic reinforcer
a reinforcer provided by oneself or inherent in the task being perfomred
logical consequence
a consequence that follows naturally or logically from a students's misbehavior; in other words, the punishment fits the crime
negative reinforcement
a consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior throught removal (rather than the presentation) of a stimulus
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that doesn not elicit any particular response
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which a response increases in frequency as a reult of its being followed by reinforcement
positive behavioral support
a variation of traditional applied behavior analysis that involves identifying the purposes of undesirable behaviors and providing alternative behaviors that more appropriately accomplish those purposes
positive feedback
a message that an answer is correct or a task has been done well
premack principle
a phenomenon in which students do less-preferred activities in order to engage in more-preferred activities
presentations punishment
punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus, presumably on a learner finds unpleasant
primary reinforcer
a consequence that satisifies a bioligically built-in need
pyschological punishment
a consequence that seriously threatens self-esteem
a consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows
the act of following a particular response with a reinforcer and thereby increasing the frequency of the response
a consequence (stimulus) of a response that leads to increased frequency of the response
removal punishment
punishment involving the removal of na existing stimulus, presumably one a learner views as desirable and doesnn't want to lose
response (R)
a specific behavior that and individual exhibits
response cost
the loss either of a previously earned reinforcer of of an opportunity ot obtain reinforcement
secondary reinforcer
a consequence that becomes reinforcing over time throught its assiciation with another reinforcer
setting event
a complex environmental condition in which a particulare behavior is most likely to occur
a process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations to a desired terminal behavior
social reinforcer
a gesture or sign that one person gives another, oftern to communicate positive regard
Stimulus (S)
a specific object or event that influences an individual's learning or behavior
a form of punishment in which a student is placed in a dull, boring situation with no opportunity for reinforcement or social interaction
token economy
a technique in which desired behaviors are reinforrced by tokesn that learners can use to purchase a variety of other reinforcers
Unconditioned response (UCR)
a response that, without prior learning, is elicited by a particulare stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that, without priou learning, elicits a particular response
verbal reprimand
a csolding for inappropriate behavior

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