Glossary of Educ Psych Ch 2 Theories of Development

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What is development?
Why important?
What are the 2 main issues?
"orderly and lasting growth, adaptation, and change over the course of a lifetime"
-effective teaching strategies must take into account student's age and stage of development
-NATURE v NURTURE (each have stronger roles in diff areas of development)
What is the diff between continuous theories of development and discontinuous theories of development?
CONTINUOUS THEORIES OF DEVELOP: belief that human development progresses SMOOTHLY and GRADUALLY from birth to adult. emphasize ENVIRONMENT not heredity (NURTURE)
DISCONTINOUS THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT: human develop occurs through a fixed sequence of distinct, predictable stages governed by INBORN (NATURE) FActors. can be at 2 stages at once, but can't skip
Describe Piaget's beliefs
* based on bio & his own kids
*THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THRU A CONSTRUCTIVIST PERSPECTIVE(constructivism: a view of cog development as a process by building systems of meaning through experience and interactions)
(stages and how develop works)
How does piaget think cog develop occurs?
*young kids have SCHEMES (mental patterns that guide behavior)
*ADAPTATION of schemes in response to environment through ASSIMILATION (understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes), and ACOMMODATION (modifying existing schemes to fit new situations) to solve EQUILIBRIUM (process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences)
What are critiques of Piaget?
* he thought development proceeds learning
(research has found contrast, that piaget tasks can be taught to kids not in the developmental level yet)
* children aren't necessary egocentric and can learn about others
* infoants can do obj permanence earlier than stage of piaget
* many researchers think that skills develop in diff ways and experience plays a bigger role
What are the four stages of Piaget?
sensorimotor (birth to 2)
preoperational (2-7)
concrete operational (7-11)
formal operational (11 to adult)
What is characteristic of the sensorimotor stage? and by who?
[piaget] [infants and toddlers; 0-2]

All infants have REFLEXES
*used through intentional trial & error for learning. at end of stage kids use planned problem solving. THINKING
OBJECT PERMANENCE: an object exists even if its out of sight (after this learn about symbols to represent in mind how it was)
What is characteristic of the preoperational stage of cog develop?
[Piaget] [ages 2-7]

1. Children's lang and concepts develop
2. primitive thinking
b. CENTRATION (focus on one aspect) [intuitive thinking: no reason]
c. NO REVERSIBILITY (ability to perform a mental operation and then revere one's thinking to return to the starting point) i.e. focus on states e.g. missing the pouring of juice
D. EGOCENTRIC (Everyone sees the world as they do)
What is characteristic of concrete operational stage of cog develop?

1. have capactiy for logical reasoning and understanding but can only use the info for familiar situations
a. INFERRED REALITY seeing things in the context of other meanings "the meanig of stimuli in the context of relevant info" i.e. red car v black car
b. learn SERIATION task of arranging objects in sequential order
c. after seriation learn TRANSIVITY ability to mentally arrange and compare objects
d. learn CLASS INCLUSION ability to think simultaneously about a whole class of objects and about relationships among its subordinate classes
What is characteristic of formal operational stage of cog develop?
[piaget][ages 7-11]

1. ability to deal with potential and hypothetical situations, and can reason logically
a. all cog thinking is laid and done but can learn more. understand hypothetical conditions, but individuals may not apply to all situations
what are neopiagetian and info processing stages of develop?
* address children's abilityies to operate at a particular stage depend on specific tasks involved. and environ can excell these things
*people think like comptures and can discern rules and assess their application, and thinking skills can be taught giving kids greater capactiy for abstract thought

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