Glossary of Eduational Psychology

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Classical Conditioning
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired
The selective focusing on a portion of the information currently stored in the sensory register.
The learned ability to respond in similar ways to similar stimuli.
The recognition that certain properties stay the same despite a change in appearance or position.
Epigenetic principle
The notion that a child's personality develops as the ego progresses through a series of interrelated stages, much as the human body takes shape during its fetal development.
The weakening of a target behavior by ignoring it.
The ability to think of more than one quality of an object or problem at a time.
Promoting the learning of complex behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations to the terminal behavior.
A process in which individuals learn to notice the unique aspects of seemingly similar situations and thus learn different ways of responding.
Distributed practice
The practice of breaking up learning tasks into small, easy-to-manage pieces that are learned over several relatively brief sessions.
Egocentric thinking
Difficulty in taking another person's point of view, a characteristic typical of young children.
Operant conditioning
The theory of behavior developed by B. F. Skinner, based on the fact that organisms respond to their environments in particular ways to obtain or avoid particular consequences.
Serial position effect
The tendency to learn and remember words at the beginning and end of a list more easily than those in the middle.
an action carried out through logical thinking
Cooperative Play
Children engage in an organized form of play in which leadership and other roles are assigned.
Parallel Play
Children play besides but not really with other children.
Vicarious Reinforcement
A situation in which the observer anticipates receiving a reward for behaving in a given way because someone else has been so rewarded.
Consistency in test results, related to the assumption that human characteristics are relatively stable over short periods of time.
Supporting learning during its early phases through such techniques as demonstrating how tasks should be accomplished, giving hints to the correct solution to a problem or answer to a question, and providing leading questions. As students become more capable of working independently, these supports are withdrawn.
Knowledge about the operations of cognition and how to use them to achieve a learning goal.
Between class grouping
Assigning students of similar learning ability to separate classes based on scores from standardized intelligence or achievement tests.
Within class grouping
A form of ability grouping that involves the division of a single class of students into two or three groups for reading and math instruction.
Joplin Plan
An ability grouping technique that combines students of different grade levels according to their standardized test scores.
a learned person
Full inclusion
The practice of eliminating pullout programs (those outside the classroom) and providing regular teachers with special training so as to keep special needs students in regular classrooms. Also called inclusion.
an abstract information structure by which our store of knowledge is organized in long-term memory. Schemas is another plural form.
Normal curve
The bell-shaped distribution of scores that tends to occur when a particular characteristic is measured in thousands of people.
Norm referenced grading
A system of grading that assumes classroom achievement will vary among a group of heterogeneous students because of such differences as prior knowledge, learning skills, motivation, and aptitude, and so compares the score of each student to the scores of other students in order to determine grades.
Criterion reference grading
A system in which grades are determined on the basis of whether each student has attained a defined standard of achievement or performance.
the quotient of the sum of several quantities and their number; an average
denoting or relating to a value or quantity lying at the midpoint of a frequency distribution of observed values or quantities, such that there is an equal probability of falling above or below it
A kind of average value. It is the element that occurs most frequently in some data.
Mnemonic device
A memory-directed tactic that helps a learner transform or organize information to enhance its retrievability.
Triarchic theory of intelligence
A theory formulated by Robert Sternberg that describes intelligence as being composed of practical, creative, and analytical components.
Ripple effect
The extent to which an entire class responds to a reprimand directed at only one student.
Pygmalion effect
refers to situations in which students perform better than other students simply because they are expected to do so.
Summarize evaluation
Testing done for the purpose of assigning a letter or numerical grade to sum up a student's performance at a variety of tasks over time.
formative evaluation
A type of assessment that monitors a student's progress in order to facilitate learning rather than assign a grade.
sensory register
The primary memory store that records temporarily (for one to three seconds) an incoming flow of data from the sense receptors.
General approaches to solving problems, such as studying worked examples and breaking problems into parts, that can be applied to different subject areas.
Humanistics education
An approach to instruction that emphasizes the effect of student needs, values, motives, and self-perceptions on learning.
premack principle
A shaping technique that allows students to indulge in a favorite activity after completing a set of instructional objectives. Also called Grandma's rule.
cognitive dissonance
the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, esp. as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.
Halo effect
the tendency for an impression created in one area to influence opinion in another area
Intrinsic motivation
A form of incentive inherent in a particular activity, such as the positive consequence of becoming more competent or knowledgeable.
Extrinsic motivation
A form of incentive based on a system of rewards not inherent in a particular activity.
The extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure.
Education of All Handicapped Children Act. now codified as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)
mandates that physical education be provided to students with disabilities
Cognitive developmental stages
psychosocial developmental stages
moral development
observational learning
operant conditioning
Haim Ginott
encourages free expression of feelings among children
salvating dog
Heriarchy of needs
every objectve has to have 3 parts
general goal followed by enabled objectives
Benjamin Bloom
taxonomy-cognitive affect
Diana Baumrind
four types of parenting styles
views on role of social interaction (cognitive thinking)
multiple intelligence theory
identity vs role confusion (learn helplessness)
Robert Sternberg
triarch theory

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