Glossary of Earth Science Review

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List the layers of the earth from the inside out
Inner Core, Outer Molten Core,Convection currents in molten magma, Continental crust
Explain the relationship of the mantle and the crust.
Continental crust, which is thicker than oceanic crust extends deeper into the mantle because of its thickness, or roots.Pg524
Explain Convection current an how it explains plate tectonics.
Convection currents transfer energy through the movement of matter causing plate tectonics.P.546.
What is the continental drift theory?
Earth's continents were once joined as a single landmass that broke up and drifted apart.
What four major pieces of evidence did Wegener have for it?
Seafloor spreading,ocean floor rocks are symmetric in relation to ocean ridges,Magma fills the gaps and Hardens P.546.
What was the major problem with his theory?
Wegener couldn't explain what was causing the continents to drift and thought maybe earths rotation was responsible and physicists proved that theory to be wrong.
What causes ocean floor spreading
Seafloor spreading occurs as magmarises toward the crust, cools and hardens to fill the gap-becomes new section of oceanic crust.p.546
Explain subduction
Area where the crust plunges into the mantle and melts.
Explain Plate Tectonics
Earths crust and the top of the upper mantle are broken into large slabs of rock called plates, which move.
Name three types of plate boundaries
Convergent, Divergent, transform
Stress that pulls rock in opposite directions
Stress that pulls rock side by side
Stress that squeezes together
Plates that move toward each other
plates that move apart
Ocean floor spreading
Idea that underwater volcanoes produce new crust
Mid-Ocean Ridge
Underwater mountain ranges
Convection current
rising and sinking of magma due to temperature
Continental Drift
idea that the continents were once a giant landmass
Plate tectonics
idea that the crust is broken into huge pieces that move
balancing force between the crust and the mantle
Lava and gases escaping from the crust
Faults in the crust that release seismic waves
What two states and the surrounding areas are at risk for earthquakes?
California and Missouri
Which of the following are effective ways to protect us from earthquakes
Improved building construction, planning, Being prepared for disaster
How many stations do seismologists need to have information from in order to determint the epicenter?
The New Madrid Fault is reponsible for earthquakes in what region?
The two scales used to measure earthquakes are
Richter and Mercalli
The Richter scale a 7.0 would be ____times larger than a 6.0.
10 times larger everytime it goes up a number
The scale used to measure the amount of damage from an earthquake is the
Why didn't people believe Wegner's theory of continental drift?
He couldn't explain why or how the continents would move.
How long after Wegener's continental drift theory did we finally learn about plate tectonics
The name of the giant land mass when all the continents were together is
What is causing the plates to move?
Convection Current
Wegner's proof for continental drift included:
Similar fossils in S. American and Africa, Glaciers in now tropical climates, Matching mountain ranges in N.American, and Europe
The Ring of Fire is in what ocean?
Pacific Ocean
The major cause of earthquakes is____, and the minor cause is_____.
Plate Boundaries is first and Stress on these boundaries is second.
A subduction zone will be found at which type of plate boundary?
Surface waves do NOT start_______.
They do not start at the focus.
The Hawiian islands were formed due to
Hot spots
The newest ocean crust can be found
Closest to mid-ocean ridges
Large waves produced from underwater earthquakes are called?
Seismologists can determine how far they are from the epicenter by measuring the _______.
arrival time of the P ans S waves
The spot of the Earth's surface that is directly above the focus is the __.
A crack in the crust large enough to make the rock around it move is called a?
Convergent plate boundaries will most likely form
Volcanoes the form gently sloping domes from oozing lava are
Shield Volcanoes
The symetrical, cone shaped volcanoes that produce lave, ash and bombs are called?
Composite Volcanoes
What determines the composition of lava?
It's thickness
Mudflows are the result of What?
Volcanic eruptions.
There is more damage done in and earthquake the closer you get to the ____?
Secondary waves are Not known as
Push pull waves.What are they known as?

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