Glossary of Earth Science Midterm 2

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When heating test tubes, always pointe the _____ end of the tube away from yourself and others
Where should you throw glass away?
Special container
A simple statement or question explaining the reason for the investigation.
A possible answer to the problem that can be tested.
A numbered list of steps used to complete the experiment. (specific as possible)
A description of what you observed while following the procedure. (DATA TABLE)
Two simple sentences:(1) Re-write you hypothesis, and (2) state if your hypothesis was proven true of false
An explanation of how you decided that your hypothesis was true of false. Includes mathematical calculations, graphs, and summary data tables.
The Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
What is the order of conversions?
Kilo Hecto Deca(Da) Base Deci Centi Milli
Mass is measured in ______
Volume is measured in ______
Length is measured in ______
Mass has to do with ____ which measures the amount of matter in a given space.
The color of a star tells you how ____ it is.
Hot (also what it is made of)
What color is cold?
What color is hot?
If a star is big, it's _____
If a star is small, it's ____
Where a star's temperature is plotted against it's brightness.
H-R Diagram
What can you determine by an H-R diagram about a star?
It's properties and life stage.
Stars that can be seen all year
Stars that are mostly seen during certain times of the year
The wave source is moving away
Red Shift
The wave source is moving closer
Blue Shift
How wave frequencies change from motion
Doppler Affect
What system do we use to tell the distance from a star to the Earth?
What is the system of Parallax measured in?
Light years
What is the first step in the life cycle of a star?
What is the second step in the life cycle of a star?
What is the third step in the life cycle of a star?
Main Sequence
What are the two different ways a star can take after a main sequence star?
Red Giant and Red Supergiant
What comes after red giant?
White Dwarf
What comes after a white dwarf?
Black Dwarf
What comes after a red supergiant?
What comes after a supernova?
Neutron Star
What comes after a neutron star?
Black Hole
Shape of a spiral galaxy
Elliptical Galaxy
-Typically have older stars
-Most common
-Vary in shape(sphere, elongated, flat disks)
Irregular Galaxy
Doesn't have a regular shape
What kind of galaxy are we in?
Globular Cluster
Most common, form into sphere or round shape
Open Cluster
unorganized group of stars
How fast does light travel?
300,000 km/s
What is the Big Bang theory?
Big explostion in space then everything appeared.
What is fusion?
When you take two atoms, smash them together really hard and come up with a new one
Name the structures of the sun from the core and on.
Core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona.
What is happening in the core?
Energy is produced (Fusion)

15 million* K - 27 million* K
Radiation Zone
Millions of years to travel through

8 million* K
Convection Zone
Energy travels quicker

7 thousand* K
-Surface of the sun
-Radiation and light escapes

500 km thick/6 thousand* K
Source of flares/prominences

20 thousand* C
-Seen only during solar eclipses
-Made of ions
-Source of solar wind

2 million* C
Solar Wind
Ions are so hot, gravity can't hold them onto the sun
Sun Spots
-Cool (temp.) spot
-Caused by twisting of magnectic fields
Solar Flares
-Violent eruption, only lsts for a few minutes
-Can cause auroras
When do prominences happen?
During solar eclipses
What are prominences?
Cool sheets of gas that condense out of the corona above the active regions
How did the solar system form?
-Nebular Theory-The sun and the planets condenseed out of the same spinning nebula.
-1796 by de Laplace
What are planetesimals?
Small bodies thought to have orbited the sun during the formation of the planets
What are protoplanets?
The initial phase in the development of a planet
What is a solar nebula?
A gaseous cloud (or accretion disc) from which solar systems are formed
Formation of the Earth
-Temp. of Baby Earth was hot enough to melt iron
-Gravity pulled melted iron to core
-More dense materials ended up in the center, and less dense on the outside
-Little to no atmosphere
-Hard, rocky, and pitted with many impact craters
-No moons
-Thick atmosphere, mainly composed of Carbon Dioxide
-Thick layers of clouds, mostly made of sulfuric acid.
-Constant lightening
-Similar to Earth
What is the Earth's atmosphere composed of?
Oxygen (21%)
Trace Gases (1%)
What kind of weather and atmosphere does our moon have?
No atmosphere and no weather
-Thin atmosphere
-Dust storms black out sky
-Red rust color
-Plenty of impact craters
-Largest volcano (Olympus Mons)
-Largest canyon (Valles Marineris
What are the two moons of Mars?
Phobos and Demos
-Hydrogen and Helium atmosphere
-Constant storms, thick clouds
-63 known moons
-Hydrogen and helium atmosphere
-Windy, constant storms
-Liquid surface
-32 known moons
What is Saturn's biggest moon and why is it so special?
Titan, believed to be closest to primative Earth environment
-hydrogen and helium atmosphere
-Lack of sunlight effects weather
-Plain surface
-27 known moons
-hydrogen and helium atmosphere
-Very active weather
-8 known moons
Great Dark Spot
Neptune, long gone
-Biggest of the Kuiper Belt objects
-Nitrogen and Carbon Monoxide atmosphere
-Cloudy and windy
-1 known moon
-Rock and ice surface
What are the 4 Jovian (outer) planets?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

-Gas Giants
What are the 4 Terrestrial (inner) planets?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

-Rock Surface
How many moons do the Terrestrial planets have?
What is retrograde motion?
The apparent reversal of a planets normal motion against the background of fixed stars
Fragments of rock that orbit the sun

-elliptical orbits
Asteroids are classified into what three categories?
1). Carbon
2). Iron and Nickel
3). Silicate minerals
-Made of rock, ices, and tars
-Consist of nucleas, coma, and tails
-Tails points away from sun
-Elliptical orbit around the sun
The Oort Cloud
A spherical cloud of dust and ice that contain nuclei of as many as a trillian comets

-astronomers believe comets come from Oort Cloud
-Smaller bits of rock or metal
-Most burn up when attempting to enter the atmosphere
A meteroid that is burning up while entering the atmosphere
A meteoroid or any part of one that is left after it hits the earth
What are the three groups that meteorites are classified as?
1). Stony (rock-like)
2). Iron (metallic appearance)
3). Stony-Iron (BOTH)
How many Apollo mission went to the moon?
-Dark area of the Moon, lava flows
-Always faces the Earth
-light areas of the moon
-older than the maria
What makes up the Highlands?
What makes up the Maria?
What can be found in both the Highland and the Maria?
What are rills?
Channels cut by molten basalt
Spring tide
The sun's and moon's gravitational force is working together
Neap tide
The sun's and moon's gravitational force oppose each other
Ebb current
As the tide goes out
Flood current
As the tide comes in
Furthest distance from the sun during orbit (moon)
Closest distance from the sun during orbit (moon)
The inner cone shape of the shadow is called the _____
The outer part of the shadow is called the ______
Time it takes for one rotation (Earth-24 hours)
Time it takes for the moon to go through one cycle (Earth-29.5 days)
How are the layers divided?
Where is almost all atmospheric moisture found?
Where is the jet stream located?
Below the tropopause
Where is the ozone layer?
Where do most meteors burn up?
What are the two sub-chategories of the thermosphere?
ionosphere and exosphere
What is the coldest layer?
Long term
happening now
What are the Greenhouse gasses?
carbon dioxide, chlorofloro dioxide, methane nitrous oxide
What does the Greenhouse Effect do?
Traps the sun's heat (carbon dioxide)
What is the importance of the ozone?
It protects the Earth's inhabitants by absorbing harmful UV rays from the sun
Coriolis Effect
Causes winds in the Northern Hemisphere to be deflected to the right and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
Which global wind are we in?
Cloud Formation
1). Warm, moist air rises
2). Rising air expands and cools to its dew point
3). Water vapor condenses on condensation nuclei to form liquid cloud droplets
Convective cooling
-Hot air from surface cools as it rises
-Adiabatice temperature changes
Forceful lifting
-When air mass meets a mountain
-Air is forced upwards
Advective cooling
-Warm, moist air travels over a cold body of water
Cold front
-Cumulus clouds
-Heavy precipitation
Warm front
-Stratus clouds
-Light precipitation
-Cold catches up with warm
-Heavy precipitation
-Cumulus clouds
-Don't move
-Weak winds
Measures barometric pressure

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