Glossary of Earth Science Final Exam Review CMA

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During one part of the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen is removed from the air mainly by nitrogen-fixing
Atmospheric pressure measured at sea level is
1.03kg/cm squared
A barometer measures
atmospheric pressure
Almost all of the water and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is in the
Readio stations can increase the distances they reach by bouncing radio waves off the
Around Los Angeles, frequent temperature inversions are the result of coll, polluted air abeing trapped by
Almost all of the energy reaching the earth from the sun is in the form of
electromagnetic waves
Raindrops may separate sunlight into a range of colors, thereby causing
a rainbow
The process in which the atmosphere traps warming solar rays at the earth's surface is called the
greenhouse effect
Heat can be transferred within the atmosphere in three ways: radiation, conduction, and
A vertical looping pattern of air flow is known as
convection cell
A gentle wind covering less than 100 km is called
a breeze
The prcess by which ice changes directly into water vapor is referred to as
Relative humidity is always expressed
as a percentage
TO express the actual amount of moisture in the air, meteorologists use
specific humidity
When air temperature drops, its capacity for holding water is
The tiny droplets that result when air is cooled by contact with a cold surface are called
Changes in temperature that result soley from the expansion or compression of air are called
Clouds form when the water vapor in air condenses as
the air is cooled
Low sheetlike clouds are called
stratus clouds
The term nimbo or minbus added to the name of any form of cloud means
The fog that results from the nightly cooling of the earth is called
radiation fog
Rain that freezes when it strikes the ground produces
glaze ice
Clouds in which the water droplets reamin liquid below 0 degrees Celsius are said to be
In one method of cloud seeding, silver-iodide crystals are used as
freezing nuclei
A wide-mouth funnel and a cylindrical container are used in making an instrument called a
rain gauge
In the majority of stars, the most common element is
The color of the hottest stars is
Stars appear to move in curcular paths around the Polaris because
the earth rotates on its axis
The change in position of a newarby star compared with the position of a faraway start is called
red shift
The brightest stars have apparent magnitudes that are
negative numbers
THe absolute magnitude of a star is
the true brightness of the star
A protostar becomes a star when it begins to
generate energy
A main-sequence star genrate energy by fusing
hydrogen into helium
A dying star can shed some of its gases as a
Black holes are difficult to locate because they
do not give off light
A pattern of stars is called a
Stars appear in fixed locations in the sky because they
are so far from the earth
The basic types of galaxies are
spral, elliptical, and irregular
Quasar formation is associated with
the big bang
According to Einstein's theory of relativity, in the formula E = mc squared, the c stands for
the speed of light
A nuclear reaction in which two two atomic nuclei combine is called
THe portion of the sun in which energy moves from atom to atom in the form of waves is called the
radiative zone
The portion of the sun normally visilbe from the earth is the
The sunspot cycle lasts
11 years
Sudden outward eruptions of electrixally charged atomic particles from the sun are called
solar flares
Gusts of solar wind can cuase
magnetic storms
Northern lights and southern lights are other names for
The hypothesis that the sun and the p lanets developed out of the same cloud of gas and dust is called the
nebular theory
The small bodies of matter that filled the solar nebula are called
Compared with the size of the present day planets, the protoplants were
The first atmosphere of the earth had a high percentage of
In the process of photosynthesis, cyanobacteria and green plants give off
Water vapor began to condense into oceans about
3 billion- 3.5 billion years ago
Ptolemy modified Aristotle's model of the universe to include
retrograde motion
Copernicus's model of the solar system differed from Prolemy's because it was
Kepler's first law states that each planet orbits the sun in a path called
an ellipse
The weak magnetic field around Mercury suggests
a core of molten iron
The planet that rotates in a direction that is opposite the direction of the other planets is
The tilt of the axis of Mars is nearly the same as that of
the earth
The most distinctive feature of Jupiter is its
Great Red Spot
All of the outer planets in the solar system are large except
The asteroid belt exists in a region between the orbits of
Mars and Jupiter
The compostion of asteroids suggests that they are
fragments of planetesimals
Meteorites can provide information about
the composition of the solar nebula before the earth and its moon formed
Dark areas on the moon that are smooth and reflect little light are called
Most of the information astronomers have gathered about the interoir of the moon has come from
Soon after the moon formed, it was covered with
molten rock
In the most recent stage in the development of the moon,
the number of meteorites hitting the moon decreased
The moon is closest to the earth at
During each orbit around the earth, the moon spins on its axis
one time
In a lunar eclipse, the moon
is in the earth's shadow
When the size of the visible portion of the moon is decreasing, the moon is
In the crescent phases, the entire moon shines dimly because of
sunlight reflected off the earth
THe two moons of Mars are
Phobos and Deimos
Compared with the other moons of Jupiter, the four Galilean moons are
The rings of Saturn are probably composed of
billions of pieces of ice and rock

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