Glossary of Earth Science 10: Movement in the Atmosphere: Vocabulary

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consistent winds in the subtropics and tropics once used by ships sailing from Europe to the New World
trade winds
swollen, upper portion of a thundercloud
consistent winds blowing from the poles which bring cold, dry air to the northern part of North America
polar easterlies
a permanent low-pressure area along the equator caused by the rising of warm air
an air mass that is warmer than the surface over which it moves
warm air mass
a transient, sometimes violent storm of thunder and lightning, often accompanied by rain and sometimes hail
most common type of violent storm
a breeze that blows from shore to sea, usually during the night
land breeze
tornado occurring at sea
an air mass that forms over cold areas
polar air mass
the calm, clear area at the center of a hurricane
advancing edge of a cold air mass
cold front
wind system that influences large climatic regions and reverses direction seasonally
the arrangement when a cool air mass and a cold air mass trap a warm air mass between them, and then the warm air mass rises over the other air masses and loses all contact with the ground
occluded front
lightning formed when a stepped leader branches on the way to the ground
forked lightning
electrical discharge that occurs either between clouds or between a cloud and the ground
a huge body of air having relatively uniform temperature and humidity and covering hundreds or thousands of square kilometers
air mass
air mass that forms over an ocean
maritime air mass
leading edge of a warm air mass
warm front
metal rod attached to the highest point of a building's roof which can conduct lightning to the ground via metal conductor cables
lightning rod
boundary between air masses that do not mix
a low-pressure area formed at 60 degrees N when the prevailing westerlies rise above the polar easterlies
subpolar low
waves that break onto the shore several hundred kilometers ahead of a hurricane, giving the first sign of the approaching storm
storm swell
zone of contact between two dissimilar air masses, neither of which is displacing the other, and usually resulting in no weather change
stationary front
narrow, funnel-shaped cyclonic windstorm extending down from a cumulonimbus cloud
consistent winds blowing towards the poles from 30 degrees latitude
prevailing westerlies
barely visible lightning discharge that jumps in a series of steps from the cloud to the ground
stepped leader
line of violent thunderstorms that sometimes accompanies an advancing cold front
squall line
lightning discharge from the ground to the cloud
return stroke
an air mass that is colder than the surface over which it moves
cold air mass
a region with uniform temperature and humidity over which air masses form
source region
an air mass that forms over land
continental air mass
flashes of lightning from clouds too far away for the thunder to be heard
heat lightning
hurricane in the region of the Indian Ocean
the effect of wind circling an area of low pressure, or a general term for any low-pressure area
a breeze that blows from the sea to the shore, usually during the day
sea breeze
giant windstorms that form over the tropical oceans near the equator
an air mass that forms over warm areas
tropical air mass
permanent high-pressure areas caused by descending cold air and result in no horizontal wind, which is dangerous to sailing ships
horse latitudes

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