Glossary of Earth Resources

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antiforms and anticlines
concave-down structures comprised of warps in rock and sediment beds.
synforms and synclines
concave-up structures comprised of warps in rock and sediment beds.
The difference betw. anticlines and synclines, and antiforms and synforms is...
the rock in the former can be dated.
The dip is known as...
the angle of inclination in the folds of thes structures; these dips are measured downward from the horizontal and in a certain direction, e.g. 45w
a horizontal bed has a ___ dip and a vertical bed has a ___ dip.
Oil and gas rise to the surface uless thay are trapped underground; this because...
thay are less dense than surrounding rock.
natural discharges of hydrocarbons at the eaths surface.
Oil and gas are held underneath the earths surface by _________.
hydrocarbon traps
Hydrocarbon traps are brought about by...
porosity/permeability differences in the rock [or both] which cause oil and gas to accumulate and remain stored underground.
a measure of void space in rock reported in percentage.
a measure of the ability of fluids to flaw through rock; note, pore spaces in a rock must be interconnected to attain permeability.
oil and gas migrate from _______
twhere they are generated, into _________ where they are stored.
source rocks...resevoir rocks
examples of good resevoir rocks are...
limestone and sandstone
Impermeable rocks which stop the movement of oil and gas are known as_________ or __________.
confining beds or cap rocks.
An example of an effective cap rock is...
fracture in the rock along which movement has occured.
Clay is a good example of...
a impermeable sediment.
structural traps
hydrocarbon traps found where geological structures such as folds or faults play a role.
the tendancy for hydrocarbons to migrate upwards and become trapped against faults.
stratigraphic traps
locations in the stratigraphic sequence (layering) of rocks where favorable circumstances, such as changes in rock type, are primed for the formation of a trap.
a certain type of hydrocarbon trap yielded when a wedge shaped sl
salt dome traps are common in...
the gulf coast region.
examples of hydrocarbon traps are...
a. anticlinal trap
b. fault trap
c. stratigraphic trap
d. pinch-out trap
e. salt dome trap
f. Reef. trap
atoms of an element whose nuclei have the same atomic number–-the number of protons in the nucleus--but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons.
The number of protons characteristic of an element is known as the __________ of the element.
atomic number
the sum of protons and neutron in an atom of any given element is known as ___________.
the atomic weight
Uranium minerals contain __% of the isotope ___ and __% of the fissionable isotope ____.
99.3%...238U, .7%...235U
In order for nuclear power production in american reactors, the concentration of 235U must be...
increased form .7% to three to four percent. This process is known as enrichment.
In a nuclear reactor...
the uranium atoms in the fuel rods are bombarded with neutrons.
a uranium-rich mineral (the cief ore of uranium) with a composition that is largely UO2 (uranium dioxide), but which also contains UO3 and oxides of lead, thorium, and rare earths. It is most commonly known in the variety pitchblende
Helium was first found...
in the element uraninite.

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