Glossary of Early American Literature Excercise 3
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- Differences between Transcendentalists and Poe, Hawthorne, Melville
- 1. Trans do not make stories that take place in darkness at night
2.Trans Never mention fate as a destructive condition
3.Trans never mention something disgustin like incest
4.Trans never describe plants as ugly and fruitless
5.Trans said "the twain yet one," but Melville said binaries are really binaries and are resistant to unification.
6.Trans don't believe in accidents--acidents suggest the universe is out of control.
- Hawthorne's characters are in
- -literal darkness and the audience is constantly trying to figure out what is going on.
- Melville says appearances
- -are part of fate. He says we are designed to be decieved and are hope-filled creatures whose yearning is never fulfilled.
- Poe sees life in
- -binaries. We are torn by an oppositional response to whatever we experience. (Horror movies cause people to shudder, yet people still like horror movies.)
- According to Melville, nature is
- -a frame of steel. Nature is utterly indifferent to our hope-filled yearning.
- In the poem "Misgivings," the ocean clouds represent
- -America and the Civil War
-the spires represent the church and the government--when the spire falls-this signifies loss of life
- In Melville's poem "The Maldive Shark" the shark represents
- fate---the frame of steel in the encatadas.
The Pilot Fish represents a heart of yearning that leads us to our death.
- Christian Humanist Compassion involves
- -you helping someone else so that that person can, in turn, help another person
- Schopenhaverian Compassion is
- -a pessimistic view of compassion that says, by helping people, you build up a sense of hope in someone that will eventuall be destroyed. This destruction of hope creates even worse pain.
- Contracting View of life found in "The Encantadas"
Erase horizon line and you are left with the sea. Then she loses her view of sea because there is no boat and her brother and husband are dead. This causes her to lose sense of shore and leads to her only being able to see herself.
- Hawthorne's color schematic
- unconscious, emotion, body, freedom, devil
- Hawthorne's color schematic
- conscious, reason/ideals, mind, authority, angel
(Area of Charity)
- -concerns questions of good and bad. These questions are predicated on something higher. If press people to prove that something is really right or wrong it is difficult. Area of Charity.
- Epistemology involves
(Area of Hope)
- how we prove what is right and what is wrong. Area of Hope.
- Ontology involves
(Area of Faith)
- what is real (God, Bible). This reality is not based on what is provable; it is based on faith. Simply involves you believing something not based on scientific fact. Area of Faith.
- Nature in Hawthorne's stoires is
- an easy metaphor for the sinful soul, the wilderness of the self, and the demonic (devil worshippers).
- Puritans viewed nature
- as the habitat of the devil. Nature is not aesthetic, it is an ugly reminder of their fall from grace.
- Phrenology is the
- study of skulls' shapes, valleys and bumbs.
Usher has large thing on his head that represents hyper-active imagination.
- In "House of Usher," Usher is the
- unconscious while Madeline is the conscious.
- Incest between Usher and Madeline is symbolic of
- the conflict between the conscious and the unconscious. It also established the disgusting tone Poe was looking for in describing this conflict.
- The fizzure in the house, the blood red moon, and the violence between brother and sister in "House of Usher" symbolizes
- how the conflict between the conscious and the unconscious will eventually destroy the body.
- The Book "Eureka" describes
- Poe's religion. Poe's religion reveals what his works were all about.
- Poe's theory of existence, as outlined in "Eureka"
- says that there was once primal energy, and that this primal energy exploded. The fragments of that explosion caused life to begin. According to Poe, we are part of these fragments.
- Fragmentation, to Poe,
- suggests that the world is not a happy place and that all people carry a death wish with them.
- In "Eureka," Poe also explains his view of the artist.
- The artist is not like us. As we age, we polarize towards rationalism and get rid of artistic, imaginitive ability.
Imagination, however, is closer to the primal.
Rationalism is the atrophication of the child's imaginitve eye. The Artist never forgets the imaginitive child within.
- "Porphyrogene" is a Greek word meaning
- -born to the purple
- Purple is the color of
- -priests vestments, but can also be a sign of sadness.
- "Thule" in the poem "Dream Land" means
- -land that is not measurable or explorable. It is the farthest known area of exploration.
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