Glossary of EPPP Social Psychology 2

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Describe Zeigarnik effect
Tendency to remember uncompleted tasks better than completed ones
Resolution of approach-approach conflict (Lewin)
Then movement toward one goal
Selected goal becomes more attractive
Resolution of avoidance-avoidance conflict (Lewin)
Rejecting both alternatives

Or, if that isn't possible:

Achieving an equilibrium between the two
Resolution to approach-avoidance conflict (Lewin)
Drawn and repelled by same situation

Try to achieve equilibrum
Approaching goal, both feelings increase
Avoidance steeper than approach gradient
So avoidance dominates
Def: fundamental attribution error *
Tendency to
underestimate the impact of situations and
over estimate the role of personal factors
in explaining other's behavior
Def: actor-observer effect
Tendency to make situational attributions
in explaining our own behavior
Def: self-serving bias *
Bias towards
attributing successes to personal factors
failures to situation factors
Def: belief in a just world
Tendency to blame the victim
To support belief that we deserve what we get

But not more harsh in their judgements
def: false consensus bias
Belief that others share our world view
Def: primacy effect
Tendency to overrate first impressions
Def: trait negativity bias
Tendency to overrate negative attributes
Def: confirmation bias
Tendency to prefer information that confirms our own beliefs
According to social comparison theory (Festinger) how do other people affect our self concept?
When we are uncertain about opinions or feelings, we compare ourselves to similar others
Def: self-fulfilling prophecy
idea that one's expectation for an event serves to make it actually occur
A person with high self-esteem attributes his/her achievements to:
Causes which are:

Most important factor in the development of altruism
Responsibility for the welfare of others
Social characteristics of the elderly who appear on TV
Physical activity
Increasing health problems
Increasing ratings of authority and esteem
Base rate fallacy
Tendency to ignore the frequency of an event
High achievers attribute failures to...
Internal, unstable and controllable factors

Ie next time you can succeed
Def: additive tasks in groups
Outcome is a combination of individual efforts
Def: conjuctive tasks in groups
Each person has his/her own goal; hence performance is limited by the weakest link
Def: disjunctive tasks in groups
Any solution is OK; so performance depends on strongest contributor
Def: compensatory tasks in groups
Group product is average performance
Desc the Prisoner's Delemma game and conclusions
People are presented with a situation in which if they cooperate they will both receive modest rewards. If they compete, one will get a big reward, and the other nothing. In fact, they begin to compete immediately.

Outside our family we tend to be hostile and suspicious.
Describe a Guttman scale *
Items are arranged in an order so that if an individual agrees with one item he also agrees with the ones below it.

Eg: If you would marry a New Yorker, you would also be willing to live next door to one.
Def: reactance *
Tendency to react in a way that is opposite of what is requested or desired
Effective strategies for an AIDS prevention program for low risk people *
Target peer norms

peer-based AIDS education
encounters with peers with AIDS
peer moderated discussion groups
Bystander apathy
Liklihood of help decreases as the number of bystanders increases

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