Glossary of EPPP Social Psychology

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Characteristics of message context:
Forewarning - generally decreases messages impact

Innoculation - better able to resist persuasion when innoculated against it
Characteristics of the communication
Level of discrepancy
One-sided vs. two-sided
Order of presentation
Fear arousal
Accidental messages
Mere exposure
Characteristics of the communicator
Delivery - people who speak more rapidly are seen as more credible
Characteristics of the recipient
Self-esteem - curvilinear - most influencable at moderate levels
Intelligence - less influencable
Mood - Happy influenced by heuristics; sad or neutral influenced by quality of argument
Gender - females more easily persuaded
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Central route - listener considers message interesting, important or personally relevant = depends on quality of argument
Peripheral route - listener finds message uninteresting or uninvolving = depends on quantity of argument and presence of persuasive cues
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
When a person has two incompatible cognitions, they experience dissonance which they attempt to relieve by changing attitudes, behavior or gathering more information
Organized interconnected mental networks of information

Maintained by what people pay attention to, how they interpret information, and what they recall
Heuristics - 2 types
"rules of thumb"

representative heuristic - judgment based on similarity to typical group member

availability heuristic - use information most easily retrievable from memory
False consensus bias
Overestimate others similarity to us
Insufficient justification
No discomfort when counter-attitudinal behaviors are the result of strong coercion, strong norms or offer a large reward
Pseudopatient Study

Rosenhan (1973)
8 confederates admitted to hospital complaining of hearing voices. Then acted normally. All but one diagnosed as schizophrenic. Demonstrates importance of social context.
Fundamental Attribution Bias
Overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors.

May be limited to individualistic cultures
Correspondent Influence Theory

Jones & Davis (1965)
Observers infer an actors personal dispositions from the actors behavior

Most likely when behavior is believed to be intentional, to have 1 or few effects, and when it is socially undesirable.
Covariation Principle

Kelley (1971)
Observers consider 3 types of info when making causal attributions
1) Consensus info - do others behave this way in this situation?
2) Distinctiveness info - Does this person act the same way in response to other entities?
3) Consistency info - Does this person act this way at other times and places?
Attributions about success and failure

Weiner (1974)
Two dimensions:
1) Internal-external
2) Temporary-stable
Actor-observer bias
People are more likely to attribute their own behavior to situational factors than dispositional ones

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