Glossary of EPPP: Social Psychology
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- True or False. You are more likely to accurately recall information that is inconsistent with your schemata than information that is consistent.
- False. Research on schemata has shown that people typically pay more attention to evidence confirming their schemata; remember people interpret information and events in ways that are consistent with their schemata; and have better recall for schemata-consistent information.
- According to the correspondent inference theory, when making attributions about an actor's behavior, we consider three factors: whether the behavior was _____, the number of _____, and the behavior's social _____.
- intentional, noncommon effects (or consequences of the behavior,
- When making attributions about the behaviors of others, members of individualistic cultures tend to overestimate the role of _____ factors:
- dispositional factors; a consistent finding of the research is that observers tend to overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors.
- The tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors is known as the _____.
- fundamental attribution bias
- According to correspondent inference theory, when making attributions about an actor's behavior, we consider three factors: whether the behavior was _____, the number of _____ , and the behavior's social _____.
- intentional, noncommon effects, desirability
An observer has made a correspondent inference, for instance, when she concludes that an actor's kind acts are a reflection of his inherent kindness.
An observer is most likely to decide that an actor's behavior is due to dispositional tendencies (i.e., to make a correspondent inference) when the actor's behavior is believed to be intentional, when the behavior has only one or a few effects, and when the behaviors is socially undesirable.
- State the difference between the Fundamental Attribution Bias and the Actor-Observer Bias.
- Fundamental Attribution Bias - Observers tend to overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors (i.e.; attributing task failure to lack of intelligence rather than the task or the environment.)
When we look at other's behaviors we tend to think that the cause is due to their disposition rather than the situation.
With the Actor-Observer Bias: People are still much more likely to attribute the behavior of others to internal(dispositional) factors AND they attribute their OWN behavior to situational (external) factor.
- In the _____ bias, people are more likely to attribute behavior which has positive consequences to DISPOSITIONAL factors and behavior that has negative consequences is attributed to SITUATIONAL factors.
- Self SERVING BIAS
- The statement, "I cried when I saw the movie, so I must have thought that it was sad," supports which of the following:
a. covariation principle
b. self-serving bias
c. self-perception theory
- c. self-perception theory; this theory states that individuals make attributions about their own attitudes and behaviors on the basis of observations of their behaviors and other external cues. Self-perception theory is supported by Schachter and Singer's experiment on the perception of emotion.
a. covariation principle - a.k.a. ANOVA Principle proposes that observers tend to look for patterns in an actor's behavior to determine its cause and consider three types of info: consensus info, distinctiveness info, and consistency info.
b. INCORRECT - Self-serving bias is the tendency to attribute one's successes to internal factors and one's failures to external factors.
- According to overjustification hypothesis, if we reward a person for performing an intrinsically rewarding activity, the person will subsequently:
a. like the activity less
b. like the activity more
c. feel obligated to engage in the
- a. like the activity less; when people are externally rewarded for a task they previously found intrinsically interesting, their intrinsic interest in the task will decrease.
- A person who is chronically depressed is most likely to attribute her recent promotion at work to:
- c. luck; Although the self-serving bias (tendency to attribute positive consequences to internal factors and negative consequences to external factors) appears to be relatively universal, there is some evidence that depressed people are more likely to attribute their failures to stable, internal factors and successes to temporary, external causes.
- The statement, "You tripped, but I was pushed" BEST illustrates which of the following:
a. self-perception bias
b. actor-observer bias
c. fundamental attribution bias
- b. actor-observer bias; this is the tendency for an observer to overestimate the effects of dispositional factors when making attributions about an other's behaviors but to overestimate the effects of situational factors when making self-attributions.
- The tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors when identifying the cause of another person's behavior is referred to as the _____ bias.
- fundamental attribution bias
- In making social comparisons, we are most likely to compare ourselves to people who are _____.
- In Schachter and Singer's epinephrine study, subjects who were _____ about the drug's effects did not act like the confederate.
- Sam and Juanita are unhappily married. Most likely, Juanita attributes the problems in their marriage to _____ characteristics of Sam.
- global, stable
- An adolescent who does the opposite of what his parents ask him to do is exhibiting psychological _____ .
- A person goes along with what her superior asks her to do because she admires the superior and considers him a role model. In this situation, the superior has _____ power.
- referent; don't be tricked into thinking that the answer to this one is legitimate power just because it is the supervisor. The reason that the person is going along with the supervisor is not for the power reason, it is due to liking.
- A minority will most likely alter the position of the majority if it maintains _____ and remains firm and uncompromising.
- a consistent position
- In Milgram's studies on obedience to authority, the willingness of teachers to obey the experimenter did NOT significantly decrease in which of the following conditions:
a. when the experiment was conducted in a warehouse
b. when the lear
- c. when the teacher could hear the protests of the learner: In the original study, the teacher and experimenter were in the same room, while the learner was placed in a different room where he could be heard but not seen.
In the subsequent studies, Milgram increased the proximity of the learner to the teacher, had experimenters giving orders to the teacher via telephone, and moved the study from Yale to a warehouse --all of which reduced the likelyhood of the compliance of the teacher to give shocks to the learner.
- The experimenter in Milgram's original studies on obedience could be said to have had which of the following types of power:
- b. legitimate; the teacher may have believed thta the influencing agent had legitimate authority.
There are six bases of social power:
Coercive: the influencing agent has control over punishments
Reward: the influencing agent has control over valued rewards and resources
Expert: the influencing agent is believed to have superior ability, skills, or knowledge.
Referent: the target is attracted to, likes, or identifies with the influencing agent.
Legitimate: the target believes the influencing agent has legitimate authority
Informational: the influencing agent possesses specific information that is needed by the target person.
- True or False. The smaller the discrepancy between an individual's position and the group's position, the greater the pressure to conform to the group position.
- False; the opposite is true.
- True or False. Coercive power is more likely to result in compliance than in internalization.
- True; Reward and coervice power lead to the most superficial response (compliance); referent power is more likely to produce identification; and expert, legitimate, and informational power are most likely to result in internalization.
- True or False. People with an internal locus of control tend to be more dogmatic and suspicious than people with an external locus of control.
- False --the opposite is true. Research on locus of control suggests that "high internals" attribute their success to intrinsic factors and are more achievement-oriented and self-confident and willing to work hard to achieve personal goals; are less anxious, suspicious, and dogmatic; and tend to be better adjusted than "high externals."
- A _____ effect typically occurs when there is a period of time between contradictory communications and the measure of attitude change is made immediately following the second communciation.
- In Festinger and Carlsmith's "$1.00/$20.00" study, subjects paid $_____ reported more positive attitudes toward a dull experiment, presumably as the result of dissonance.
- $1; The outcome of this study may be explained by the notion of insufficient justification which posits that people don't usually experience discomfort when their counter-attitudinal behviors are the result of strong coercion, strong norms, or an offer of a large reward, but they do feel discomfort when there is insufficient external justification for their behaviors. The $1 subjects reported that the experiment was not boring presumably because unlike the $20 subjects, the $1 subjects has insufficient justification for lying and, therefore, experienced dissonance, which they attempted to reduce by changing their attitude toward the experiment (i.e., by deciding that the experiment was actually enjoyable).
- People sometimes form attitudes on the basis of thoughtful, conscious decisions. According to the elaboration likelihood model, this is referred to as the _____ route.
- central; elaboration likelihood model predicts that persuation can occur in one of two ways: persuation can involve the CENTRAL ROUTE, which is likely when the listener finds the message interesting, important, or personally relevant and, as a result, is willing to consider the content of the message in a thougthful, careful way.
Alternatively, persuation can involve the PERIPHERAL ROUTE, which is likely to occur when the listener finds the message uninteresting or ininvolving. In this situation, attitude change involves less mental effort and depends on the quantity (versus quality) of the arguments and on the presence of persuasive cues such as the attractiveness and status of the communicator.
- Studies on communicator credibility suggest that a man who has been convicted of assault would probably generate the MOST attitude change if he argues for which of the following:
a. improved prison conditions
b. longer prison sentences fo
- b; One of the factors that determines a communicator's credibility is his or her trustworthiness which depends, in part, on the communicator's motives. In general, communicators are considered more trustworthy if they are arguing agains their own best interests than if they have something to gain by being persuasive.
- Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that a woman who accepts a job she dislikes is most likely to change her opinion about the job if she believes her salary is:
- a. low --like the $1/$20 boring task, if the woman's salary is low, she would feel great cogntive dissonance about taking a job that she knew to be unpleasurable. To reduce her amount of cognitive dissonance, she might convince herself that she actually likes the job. If she were paid a high salary, she might tell herself, "I don't like my job, but, hey, who cares? The pay is good."
- True or False. All other things being equal, intentionally delivered messages can be expected to produce less attitude change than accidentally overheard messages.
- True. Apparently, this is because a communicator is more likely to be perceived as trustworthy when his or her message is overheard.
- In most situations, a communicator is likely to produce the greatest attitude change if the level of discrepency between her position and the recipient's position is:
- b. moderate; The most attitude change is produced by a moderate level of discrepency between the positions of the recipient and the communication. However, a precise point at which the maximum attitude change occurs varies somewhat for different levels of communicator credibility.
- True or False. "Innoculation" involves providing an individual with arguments against her position and weak refutations of those arguments.
- True or False. Attitudes are good predictors of behavior when measures of attitudes and behaviors are specific rather than general.
- True or False. Attitudes are usually better predictors of behaviors when single attitudes and behaviors are measured.
- False. Attitudes are usually better predictors of behaviors when multiple attitudes and behaviors are measured.
- True or False. There is a stronger relationship between attitudes and behavior when attitudes are based on direct experience.
- True; Fazio and Zanna found that a stated attitude is more predictive of willingness to participate in a psychology experiment if the attitude was developed on the basis of previous participation in an experiment rather than on the basis of reading about experiments.
- True or False. A person's attitude is more accurate predictor of a behavior when the behavior will have important consequences for that person.
- True or False. Attitudes are better predictors of behavior for high self-monitors.
- False. Don't be fooled into thinking that you can better predict a high self-monitor's behavior because s/he will conform to the group's behaviors. Attitudes are better predictors of behavior for LOW self-monitors than high self monitors. Apparently, this is because low self-monitors rely more on their own attitudes to guide their behavior.
- True or False. According to Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (also known as the theory of reasoned action), attitudes are accurate predictors of behavior when the attitude measure assesses all three components of the behavioral intention.
- True. --i.e., the person's attitude toward engaging in the behavior; what the person believes other people think he or she should do; and the person's perceived behavioral control.
- True or False. The relationship bewteen attitudes and behavior is stronger when the attitude measure assesses attitude toward the object than attitude toward the behavior.
- False --the opposite is true. The relationship bewteen attitudes and behavior is stronger when the attitude measure assesses attitude toward the BEHAVIOR rather than attitude toward the object. For example, the likelihood that a person will give money to a politician is more accurately predicted by the person's attitude toward donating money rather than toward the politician.
- True or False. Lewin's research was on the here-and-now, and the target of his research the individual's current "life space," which refers to the biological, psychological, social, and physical influences that define the person's unique realit
- According to the notion of symbolic racism, prejudice and discrimination reflect a fear among Whites that minorities threaten _____.
- traditional American values; symbolic (modern) racism proposes that prejudice and discrimination are less blatant than they used to be and represent a form of resistance to change in racial status that is based on the moral feeling that African-Americans and other minorities violate such traditional American values as individualism, self-reliance, and the work ethic.
- An overestimate of the strength of the relationship between two variables is referred to an _____ correlation.
- illusory correlation; which is the tendency to perceive a stronger relationship between two, usually distinct, variables than actually exists. Illusory correlation contributes to stereotyping when a negative characteristic is assumed to apply to all or most members of a group because it has been exhibited by some members of that group.
- Milgram (1965) found that subjects were more willing to administer electric shocks to another person when they couldn't see the victim and the victim couldn't see them. This finding is predicted by Zimbardo's notion of _____.
- deindividuation; model of aggression that proposes that people are more likely to act aggressively or in other antisocial ways when conditions allow them to feel unidentifiable.
- Sherif's Robber's Cave Study demonstrated that the best way to reduce intergroup conflict is to introduce _____ goals.
- superordinate goals; of all the strategies introduced in this study to promote group cohesiveness, only one --the introduction of SUPERORDINATE GOALS --that could be achieved only when members of both groups worked cooperatively --was successful.
- According to Lewin's field theory, individual behavior is a function of _____.
- B = f(P,E) --Behavior is a function of personality (the person) and environment (the physical and social environment).
- Patterson and his colleagues proposed that aggression in children is largely attributable to coercive _____.
- family interactions; the "coercive family interaction model" attributes aggressiveness in children to certain parent-child interactions. According to this model, children initially learn aggressive behaviors from their parents who model aggression through their use of harsh discipline and who ignore or reinforce their children's aggressiveness.
- According to Allport, when developing an intervention to reduce prejudice, it is important to keep in mind that:
a. stateways are not effective if they precede folkwas
b. stateways are the consequence of folkways
c. stateways can be
- c. stateways can be effective even when they precede folkways; Allport asserts that it is not always necessary for "folkways" (practice, custom, or belief shared by the members of a group as part of their common culture)to precede "stateways," and he proposed that laws prohibiting discrimination can be effective even when they do not reflect public consensus.
- Research investigating the effects of violent films on viewer aggression has most consistently found that the viewing of violence:
a. decreases viewer aggression because of its cathartic effects
b. incrases viewer aggression, especially f
- b; with regard to "media violence" research indicates that viewing violence does increase aggressiveness, and it suggests that the increase can be long-term.
- A person is more likely to be helped in an emergency situation when:
a. there is a single bystander
b. there are two or more bystanders of the same sex
c. there are several bystanders of the opposite sex
- a; bystanders are less likely to intervene in the presence of others than when alone and that the greater the number of bystanders, the greater the bystander apathy.
- True or False. The use of either alcohol or marijuana is likely to lead to an increase in aggressiveness.
- False; researchers compared the effects of alcohol and THC on aggressiveness and found that it is reduced by small quantities of alcohol but increased by larger quantities. In contrast, low doses of THC have little or no effect on aggression, while higher doses decrease it.
- True or False. Berkowitz's notion of cognitive neoassociationism predicts that frustration can result in either aggression or avoidance, depending on certain factors.
- True; Berkowitz developed a theory of cognitive neoassociationism which proposes that frustration is one of several aversive conditions that produce negative affect which, in turn, may lead to either aggressvive or an escape/avoidance response.
- True or False. Use of a "jigsaw classroom" has beneficial effects for students belonging to culturally diverse groups but a negative impact on the attitudes and performances of Anglo students.
- False; the jigsaw method of learning caused students to each learn a piece of the material making them dependent on their classmates for the full learning of the material. Results indicated that the jigsaw method not only reduces ethnic sterotyping and increases students' attraction to self-esteem, cooperation, and attitudes toward school. Benefits are more pronounced for minority students, but Anglo students can be expected to do as well or as (or better than) they do in traditional classrooms.
- A subject in an experiment is made to feel very anxious. While waiting for the experiment to begin, you would expect she would prefer to:
a. wait alone
b. wait with a non-anxious subject
c. wait with another anxious subject
- c; researchers found that anxious subjects preferred to wait with other highly anxious subjects, but when given the choice of waiting alone or with non-anxious subjects, they cose to wait alone. This is not what I would do!!!!
In anxiety arousing conditions *social comparison* is more potent cause of affiliation than relief from discomfort and that the adage "misery loves company" is better stated as "misery loves miserable company."
- Which of the following people is MOST likely to be liked by others:
a. a consistently incompetent person
b. a consistently competent person
c. a competent person who occasionally makes mistakes
- c; competent and intelligent people are generally liked more than their incompetent and unintelligent peers, and this is especially true when the competent person occasionally makes small blunders.
- Rob will be MOST attracted to Sue if Sue:
a. always says good things about Rob
b. first says bad things about Rob and then says good things
c. first says good things about Rob and then says bad things
- b; As predicted in gain-loss theory, we are most attracted to people who first evaluate us negatively but then evaluate us positively.
- Results of Broverman, et al.'s study on sex stereotypes indicated that mental health professionals:
a. describe healthy males more positively than healthy females
b. describe healthy females more positively than healthy males
- a; Boverman and her colleagues (1970), which shows that the personality attributions made by clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers often reflect *traditional sex-role stereotypes*: male and female mental health professionals in their study used similar adjectives to describe healthy adults and healthy males, but used different (and less positive) adjectives for healthy females.
- Males and females are asked to rate prose purportedly written either by a male or a female. Most likely:
a. males will rate the male-written prose more favorably and females will rate the female-written prose more favorably
- With regard to the effects of crowding, which of the following is true:
a. men are more likely than women to act aggressively in crowded conditions
b. men are less likely than women to be stressed by crowded conditions
- a; In most situations, men require more personal space than women, and this gender difference helps explain why males tend to become more sensitive to and more stressed by high density and to react more aggressively then females to crowded situations.
- True or False. Subjects seated very close together in a movie theater were less likely to say that they felt crowded when watching an arousing, attention-grabbing (violent, sexual, or humorous) film than subjects watching an unarousing, uninteresting (do
- True; subjects were also more likely to say that tyey enjoyed the arousing film when it was viewed in crowded conditions.
- True or False. According to the density intensity hypothesis, the different effects of crowding are due to the fact that a crowd enhances negative experiences and situations but makes pleasant situations more unpleasant.
- False --the opposite is true! According to the density intensity hypothesis, the different effects of crowding are due to the fact that a *crowd enhances positive experiences* and situations but makes *unpleasant situations more unpleasant*.
- True or False. Females depend more on verbal communication when making friends, while males depend more on shared activities.
- To "inoculate" someone against a persuasive message, you would:
a. warn the person that she is about to hear a message designed to change her beliefs
b. provide the person with information that supports her current beliefs
- d. McGuire used the medical model to develop methods for increasing resistance to persuation. This response describes the technique he calls inoculation, wich produced the greatest resistance to attitude change.
a. INCORRECT - forewarning a recipient about a message usually decreases the message's ability to induce attitude change. However, it can increase persuasiveness when the recipient wants to be liked by the communicator or wants to "save fact" by agreeing.
- Aronson and Mills examined the effects of severity of initiation into a group on subsequent attitudes toward the group. Results of their study indicated that, in comparison to women who underwent a mild initiation, women who underwent a severe initiation
- b; results of this study are used as evidence for cognitive dissonance theory. As predicted by dissonance theory, when women had to undergo a difficult intiation into a dull group, they experienced dissonance and, to reduce dissonance (i.e., to justify the initiation), they described the dull group as being enjoyable.
- The "fundamental attribution bias" predicts that, in contrast to an actor, the observer of an actor's behavior is more likely to make:
a. situational attributions since the observer has limited info about the actor's internal motiva
- c. The fundamental attribution bias applies to the attributions that people make about the behavior of other people. Observers tend to make dispositional attributions about the behaviors of actors, apparently because they have limited information about the actor or his/her situation.
- A supervisor attempts to increase his influence by being sensitive to the needs of his subordinates and acting as a role model. This supervisor is relying on which of the bases of power identified by French and Raven:
- a. a person has referent power when he is admired, liked, or respected by other people or is viewed as a role model.
- In their classic study, Festinger and Carlsmith offered subjects either $1.00 or $20.00 to tell potential subjects that a dull experiment was very interesting. With regard to cognitive dissonance theory and self-perception theory, which of the following
- c. Although they do so for different reasons, cognitive dissonance theory and self-perception theory both predit that subjects in the $1 condition will report liking the dull experiment more than subjects in the $20 condition.
Cognitive dissonance: "I didn't get enough money to justify lying about the group's enjoyment level, so I'll convince myself that I truly enjoyed it."
Self-perception theory: $1 subjects reported more favorable attitudes toward the dull experiment because nothing in the environment explained their willingness to describe it as enjoyable.
- Studies on attitude change suggest that the greatest amount of attitude change will occur when a:
a. high credible communicator is asking for a moderate amount of attitude change
b. high credible communicator is asking for a small amount
- a. This is the optimal combination of communicator credibility and communication discrepency for attitude change.
- In the context of social exchange theory, the notion of reciprocity is:
a. more critical between acquaintances than between close friends
b. more critical between close friends than between acquaintences
c. equally critical bewteen a
- a. social exchange theory predicts that people are attracted to one another when the rewards of the relationship exceed its costs and when rewards and costs are reciprocal. Social exchange theory applies more to exchange relationships in which the participants are strangers, acquaintances, or business partners than communal relationships in which the participants are close family friends or family members.
- Lewin's field theory defines the "life space" as:
a. the macrosystem in which the individual is embedded
b. the interdependent aspects of the person and his or her environment
c. the social forces in the environment that de
- b. The life space is a central concept in Lewin's theory. It refers to the biological, psychological, social, and physical influences that determine the individual's subjective reality at a given point in time.
- The predictions made by social comparison theory about self-attributions apply when:
a. an individual is in the midst of strangers
b. an individual is in unfamiliar circumstances
c. there is social pressure to conform
d. there i
- d. According to social comparison theory, in the absence of objective standards, we judge our own behavior by comparing it to that of others.
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