Glossary of EPPP: Clinical Psychology
- Lynn Coon
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- Traditional forms of psychotherapy reflect a Eurocentric perspective that emphasizes:
- a linear cause-effect approach
- When using Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's racial/culturel identity development model, a person's stage of identity development is determined by:
- assessing his/her attitudes toward the minority and majority cultures.
- Research on Helms' white racial identity development model has shown that white therpists are most effective in cross-cultural couseling situations when they are in which stage of identity development:
- The autonomy stage.
The higher the white therapist's stage of identity development, the greater his/her effectiveness when working with the clients from culturally-diverse groups.
- diagnostic overshadowing
- occurs when the salience of one disorder or condition "overshadows" consideration or recognition of another disorder (e.g., a therapist does not recognize a co-existing clinical disorder in someone with MR).
- An emic approach:
- takes into consideration that each culture possesses unique characteristics and studies a culture on its own terms from its own perspective.
- An etic approacha:
- studies a culture from outside of that culture and is not culture-specific.
- Several authorities interested in multicultural counseling have noted that traditional forms of psychotherapy reflect a eurocentric perspective that emphasizes:
a. a concrete non-linear approach
b. a linear cause-effect approach
d. a direc
- Eurocentric perspective clases with the values, beliefs, of clients from culturally-diverse groups and emphasizes one-on-one problem solving and adopts an atomistic, linear, and reductinistic cause-effect approach.
- Research on Helm's white racial identity model has shown that white therapists are most effective in cross-cultural counseling situations when they are in which stage of identity development:
- the autonomy stage: the higher the white therapist's stage of identity development, the greate his/her effectiveness when working with clients from culturally diverse groups.
- The primary target of "advocacy consultation" is best described as:
a. worker well-being
b. the child's best interests
c. interpersonal conflicts
d. social change
- d. social change: a distinctive characteristic of advocacy consultation is that it is based on an explicit value orientation that targets social change in the direction of power equalization.
- "Change through therapy, is accompanied by stress, and the therapeutic system must be capable of dealing with it." This statement was made by:
- d. Minuchin: for Minuchin, change is often precipitated by stress. Consequently, in therapy, to effect appropriate structural changes, the therapist induces stress.
- With regard to suicide rates, which of the following is true about Anglo versus African-American males:
a. for all age groups except 15 through 24, Anglos have a higher rate.
b. for all age groups except 25 through 34, Anglos have a higher rate
- D. for all age groups, Anglos have a higher rate
Although the magnitude of the difference in suicide rates for whites and African-Americans varies for differnt age groups, the rates are higher for whites in all age groups.
- There is some evidence that stimulus exposure and antidepressants that increase serotonin levels both alleviate the symptoms of OCD by reducing activity in the:
a. locus coeruleus
b. caudate nucleus
c. reticular activating system
- b. caudate nucleus
- in their reformaulation of the learned helplessness model of depression, Abramson, Metalsky, and Alloy:
a. de-emphasize the role of punishment and emphasize the role of reinforcement
b. deemphasize the role of helplessness and emphasize the rol
- c. deemphasize the role of attributions and emphasize the role of hopelessness: one type of depression is due primarily to feelings of hopelessness. For this type of depression, attributions are relevant only to the degreee that they contribute to feelings of hopelessness.
- Compared to young depressed adults, older depressed adults are least likely to:
a. be anxious
b. have memory problems
c. express feelings of hopelessness
d. express feelings of sadness
- d. express feelings of sadness: older adults are less likely than younger ones to complain of depression or feelings of sadness. However, they are more likely to say they feel anxious and hopeless and to have memory problems.
- A man with a history of chronic back pain loses his job. He tells you that his pain has beenmuch worse since he stopped working. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is:
a. chronic back pain syndrome
b. masked depression
- b. masked depression: the clue is the man's loss of his job, which is certainly a potential precipitant of depression. The research has shown that depression can magnify pre-existing pain.
- Depressive symptoms that are often the result of long-term pain is called:
- Chronic Pain Syndrome
- An assumption underlying Marlatt and Gordon's relapse prevention (RP_ model is that:
a. abstinence is the only goal since any drug use will trigger the "latent disease"
b. addictive behaviors are acquired through classical conditionin
- c: CORRECT Relapse prevention is based on social learning theory and views addictive behaviors as acquired (overlearned) habit patterns. The focus in relapse prevention is on acquiring the skills needed to reduce the risk for relapse.
- Restlessness, psychomotor agitation, flushed face, diuresis, rampling speech, and muscle twitching are most suggestive of:
a. alcohol withdrawal
b. caffeine intoxication
c. cocaine intoxication
- b. CORRECT The symptoms listed in the question are characteristic of Caffeine Intoxication.
- Temor, nausea and vomiting, autonomic hyperactivity, depressed mood and irritability, transient illusions and hallucinations, and insomnia are most indicative of:
a. alcohol withdrawal
b. caffeine intoxication
c. cocaine intoxication
- ANSWER: a., alcohol withdrawal
- Euphoria, grandiosity, hypervigilance, impaired judgment, rambling and incoherent speech, perspiration, chills, and visual or tactile hallucinations.
a. alcohol withdrawal
b. caffeine intoxication
c. cocaine intoxication
- c. cocaine intoxication
- Weight loss, increased appetite, intolerance to heat, tremors, and rapid heart rate are indicative of:
a. alcohol withdrawal
b. caffeine intoxication
c. cocaine intoxication
- d. hyperthyroidism
- Continued substance use despite knowledge of having persistent or recurrent problems likely to have been caused or exacerbated by use of the substance is characteristic of:
a. Substance Dependence
b. Substance Abuse
c. either Substance Dep
- c. CORRECT This is listed in DSM as a symptom for both Substance Dependence and Substance Abuse. Specifically, the existence of physiolocial or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by use is characteristic of Substance Dependence (A diagnosis of Substance Dep also requires the presence of other symptoms such as inability to control substance use, withdrawal symptoms, and marked tolerance). By contrast, social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by use are characteristic of Substance Abuse.
- A 33-year-old male client presents with hallucinations and bizarre delusions. His parents report no psychological stressors and say that he has been sich and out of work for about five weeks. Your tentative diagnosis would be:
- b. CORRECT - Schiophrenia requres the presence of psychotic symptoms for at least six months. When symptoms are present for less than 6 months, Schizophreniform Disorder is applicable. Brief psychotic disorder would not apply because the symptoms have lasted for more than one month and there is typically an acute onset.
- Childhood-onset OCD:
a. is about equally common in boys and girls.
b. is two times more common in girls than boys
c. is two times more common in girls than boys
d. is more common in boys than girls
- d. CORRECT - while OCD is about equally common in adult males and females, because of its erlier onset in males, it is more common in male children than in female children.
Tip! It is more common in male children because boys are more active than girls as women become more hormonal with age, their prevalence rate catches up with the males.
- Murray Bowen's approach to family therapy can be viewed as a bridge between a _________ approach and a systems approach:
- d. CORRECT - The influence of Bowen's psychodynamic background is evident, for example, in his recognition of the role of early family relationships on current functioning.
- Virgiania Satir's approach to family therapy emphasizes:
a. styles of communication
b. family projection processes
c. boundary disturbances
d. transferences between family members
- a. Satir distinguishes between five communications styles - placater, blamer, super-reasonable, irrelevant, and congruent.
- Self-in-relation therapy is an approach to:
a. family therapy that emphasizes the multiple transferences that affect current relationships among family members
b. group therapy that focuses on interpersonal interpretations and misinterpretation
- c. Object relations theory was an important influence on self-in-relation theory. However, self-in-relation theory extends the objects relations approach by considering the impact of same versus opposite gender in caregiver-infant relationships on development, especially on development of the relational self.
- Name the four boundary disturbances in Gestalt therapy.
- Introjection, projection, retroflection, confluence.
- occurs when a person psychologically swallows whole concepts (gestalt therapy)
- involves disowning aspects of the self by assigning them to others.
- entails doing to oneself what one wants to do to others. A retroflector may, for instance, turn his anger toward another person inward.
- refers to the abscence of a boundary between the self and the environment and causes an intolerace of any differences between self and other.
- Stage One - group therapy is characterized by:
- attempts to determine the group's stucture and meaning.
- Stage Two - Group Therapy is characterized by:
- members attempting to establish his or her preferred amount of initiative and power.
- Stage Three - Group therapy is characterized by:
- the developement of cohesiveness. as a result, unity, intimacy, and closeness become chief concerns.
- Primary prevention is aimed at:
- reducing the prevalence of mental and physical disorders by decreasing the incidents of new cases.
- Secondary prevention:
- attempts to decrease the prevalence of disorders by reducing their duration through early detection and intervention --screening is done.
- tertiary prevention
- is aimed at people who already have the disorder. it seeks to diminish the intensity and duration.
- client-centered case consultation
- involves working with the consultee to develop a plan that will enable the consultee to work more effectively with a particular client.
- consultee-centered case consultation
- to enhace the consultee's performance in delivering services to a particular population or group.
- program-centered administrative consultation
- working with one or more administrators to resolve problems related to an existing program
- consultee-centered administrative consultant
- to help administrative-level personnel improve their professional functioning so that they can be more effective in program development, implementation, and evaluation.
- Intercultural Nonparanoiac Discloser
- (Low fucntional paranoia, Low cultural paranoia) a client in this category is willing to self-disclose to AA or white therapist.
- functional paranoiac
- (high functional paranoia, low cultural paranoia)
non-disclosive to both AA and whites due to pathology
- healthy cultural paranoiac
- (low functional paranoia, high cultural paranoia)
self-disclose to an AA therapist but are reluctant to disclose to a white therapist due to racism
- confluent paranoiac
- (high functional paranoia, high cultural paranoia)
nondisclosing to AA and whites due to a combination of racism and pathology
- the best tx for a functional paranoiac is one that:
- is most effective for the client's parhtology and should be based on the competence of the therapist and not on the therapist's race.
- For the Healthy Cultural Paranoiac, the goals of treatment should are:
- to confront the meaning of the client's paranoia by bringing it into his or her conscious awareness and to correct the presenting problem.
- The Confluent Paranoiac's optimal treatment:
- combines the approach for the the Functional and Healthy Cultural Paranoiacs. The therapist should probably be from the same race/ethnic group as the cleint.
- Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Developement Model is comprised of 5 stages:
(name acronym and the name of each stage that it stands for)
- Captain: Conformity
Race: Resistance and Immersion
- Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Developement Model Stage I: Conformity
- Conformity: positive attitude toward dominent culture, depreciates own culture, preference for therapist from majority group
- Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Developement Model Stage II: Dissonance
- confusion and conflict over the contradictory appreciating and depreciating attitudes that one has toward the self and toward others of the same and different groups --prefers a therapist from a racial/cultural minoriity group.
- Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Developement Model Stage III: Resistance and Immersion
- actively reject the dominant society and exhibit appreciating attitudes toward the self and toward members of their own group --prefers therapist from the same racial/cultural group.
- Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Developement Model Stage IV: Introspection
- uncertainty about the rigidity of beliefs held in stage 3 and conflicts bewteen loyalty and responsibility toward one's group --prefers therapist in own group but open to outsiders that share similar world view.
- Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Developement Model Stage V: Integrative Awareness
- experience self-fulfillment with regard to their cultural identity and have a strong desire to eliminate oppression --want therapist with a a similar worldview, race not important.
- Cross' Black Racial Identity Developement Model is directly linked to racial oppression and consists of four stages. Name the acronym and the names of the four stages.
- Patients: Preencounter
I/M injections: Immersion/Emersion
I/C in court: Internalization/Commitment
- Define stage 1 of Cross' Black Racial Identity Development Model
- Preencounter: whites are seen as ideal, AA are denigrated --AA in this stage would prefer white counselor
- Define stage 2 of Cross' Black Racial Identity Development Model
- Encounter: greater racial/cultural awareness comes about from exposure to race-related event and stimulates interest in developing AA identity --AA's in this stage prefer AA therapist.
- Define stage 4 of Cross' Black Racial Identity Development Model
- Internalization/Commitment: adopts AA world view and then begins to work toward eradicating racism --may exhibit healthy cultural paranoia.
- Define stage 3 of Cross' Black Racial Identity Development Model
- Immersion/Emersion: transition stage that involves struggle between old and emerging ideas about race. The individual initially idealizes AA, immerses self in AA culture, and denigrates whites. Toward the end of this stage, the person is less emotionally immersed and begins to move toward internalization of a new identity.
- According to Helms, white racial identity development occurs as a white person first acknowledges racism, then relinquishes it, and finally develops a nonracist white persona. This involves the following 6 stages (name the acronym for the stages and thei
- Can't: Contact
Deal with: Disintegration
- Name and describe Stage 1 of Helms' White Racial Identity Development
- Autonomy: The person internalizes a positive (nonracist) white identity that includes an appreciation of a respect for racial/cultural differences and similarities.
- Name and describe Stage 2 of Helms' White Racial Identity Development
- Disintegration: Increasing contact with AA increases the person's awareness of being white, which leads to confusion and ambivalence. To reduce conflicts, the person may overidentify with AA or acti in a paternalistic way, or retreat into white society.
- Name and describe Stage 3 of Helms' White Racial Identity Development
- Reintegration: The individual attempts to resolve the conflicts of the Disintegration stage by accepting racist views of white superiority and AA inferiority.
- Name and describe Stage 4 of Helms' White Racial Identity Development
- Pseudo-Independence: A "personally jarring" event or events cause the person to question his/her racist views and to recognize that whites have a responsibility for racism.
- Name and describe Stage 5 of Helms' White Racial Identity Development
- Immersion-Emmersion: the individual explores what it means to be white.
- Parham and Helms developed an attitude measure of racial identity that assesses four stages of African-American identity development. These stages are:
a. pre-encounter, encounter, resistance-immersion, and introspection
b. pre-encounter, encou
- b. these are the four stages assess by the Parham and Helms measure. The final (internalization) stage is characterized by adoption of an AA worldview.
- In their book, A Theory of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy, Sue, Ivey, and Pedersen describe three multicultural counseling competencies. These are:
a. ability, knowledge, sensitivity
b. flexibility, sensitivity, awareness
- c. awareness (of one's own values, beliefs and stereotypes regarding human behavior), knowledge (about the worldview of minority and culturally-different clients), and skills (possession of culturally-appropriate counseling skills).
- An African-American client exhibiting a "split-self syndrome" as a response to racial oppression will most likely:
a. exhibit a high degree of detachment from his family and neighborhood
b. avoid contacts with whites
- c. the split-self syndrome is a result of accepting a polarized, hierarchical manner of thinking and accepting negative racial messages. One manifestation of this syndrome is evaluating oneself against white standards.
- Which of the following was responsible for the genesis of Gerald Caplan's developement of mental health consultation:
a. recognition that traditional psychoanalysis was not helpful for many of his clients
b. recognition that an internal consult
- c. Caplan's conslutation approach grew out of his experiences at residential institutions. He recognized that it was not feasible to provide direct services to patient's due to their large number and, consequently, developed an indirect approach that increased his ability to ensure that patients received adequate treatment.
- It has been suggested that women stay with abusive partners because they fear the consequences of leaving. Based on your knowledge of the research in this area, you can conclude that:
a. this fear has been supported by the finding that incidents of
- a. rist for abuse increases following seperation.
- Research on complex clinical decision-making has confirmed that:
a. statistical prediction is more accurate than clinical judgement
b. clinical judgment is more accurate than statistical prediction
c. clinical judgment is more accurate tha
- a. actuarial prediction alone is most accurate, then a combination of actuarial and clinical judgment, then clinical judgment alone.
- According to Margaret Mahler's object relations theory, the development of a sense of self is the result of seperation-individuation process that begins at about ____ months of age:
a. 2 to 3
b. 4 to 5
c. 8 to 10
d. 12 to 14
- b. separation-individuation is triggered by the child's ability to seperate from his/her primary caregiver. The process begins at age 4 to 5 months of age when a child who being held by his/her caregiver is able to lean away to scan the environment.
- Sue describes "worldview" in terms of two independent dimensions --locus of control and locus of responsibility. From this perspective, an Anglo-American therapist with an internal locus of control and an internal locus of responsibility is mos
- c. IC-ER worldview is likely to pose the most difficult problems for the IC-IR white therapist because the client is likely to challenge the therapist's authority, view the therapist as part of the establishment that has oppressed the minorities.
- Cross-cultural research has identified seven universal emotions that are associated with similar facial expressions by individuals from diverse cultures. Which of the following is NOT one of these:
- d. shame is not one of the universal emotions identified by the researchers.
Hint! Japanese people my smile when embarrased and other cultures do not.
- Name and identify the 5 stages of Prochaska and DiClemente's Transtheoretical model of behavior change.
(name the acronym and title of each stage)
- Name and define the 1st stage of Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of behavior change.
- precontemplation: the individual has little insight into the need for change and does not intent to change.
- Name and define the 2nd stage of Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of behavior change.
- contemplation: the person is aware of change and is considering change in the next 6 months, but is not committed to change.
- Name and define the 3rd stage of Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of behavior change.
- preparation: there is clear intent to take action in the next month.
- Name and define the 4th stage of Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of behavior change.
- action: the individual actually takes steps to bring about action.
- Name and define the 5th stage of Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of behavior change.
- maintenance: behavior change has lasted for six moths and the person is preventing relapse.
- According to Prochaska and DiClemente's stages of change (transtheoretical) model, a person in the _____ stage is planning to take actions that will alter his/her problematic behavior in the next 30 days.
- c. a person in preparation stage is planning to take action in the near future (usually defined as in the next month).
- A licensed psychologist with expertise in the areas of mental retardation and learning disabilities is hired by a school district to assist a teacher who is having difficulty working effectively with newly "mainstreamed" students in his class.
- b. in consultee-centered case consultation, the consultant assists the consultee in delivering effective services to a particular type of cleitn or student.
Tip! in client-centered case consultation, the consultant assists the consultee with a particular cleint or student.
- Coalitions, two- and three-generation conflicts, and rule governed behavior are key concerns for practitioners of:
a. Haley's Problem-Solving Therapy
b. de Shazer's Solution-Focused Therapy
c. Glasser's Reality Therapy
d. Bowen's Exte
- a. Jay Haley discusses the role of coalitions, two- and three-generation conflice and rule-goverened behavior --note that his approach is also called "strategic" family therapy.
- The Consumer Reports study of psychotherapy found that:
a. long-term therapy has little or no advantage over short-term therapy for most clients.
b. clients report greater improvement with long-term therapy and short-term therapy
c. most c
- b. the survey confirmed that there is a dose dependent effect of therapy with "larger dose" producing more postive effects.
- In their 1995 meta-analysis of the treatment outcome studies, Weisz and his colleagues report that:
a. there is clear evidence that therapy is more effective for children than adults
b. there is clear evidence that therapy is more effective for
- d. overall, therapy is more effective for adolescents than children. there is an interactive effect with age of child and service provider in that adolescents do better with professionals and students and children do better with paraprofessionals (maybe the professionals and students are intellectualized and the paraprofessionals are more childlike?)
- A client who is a member of a minority group expresses negative feelings about her own culture and positive feelings toward the dominant culture. From this perspective of Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Minority Identity Model, this client is in which stage:
- a. this stage is characterized by a preference for the dominant culture over own's own culture.
- In working with an African-American cleint exhibiting "healthy cultural paranoia," an Anglo therapist would be best advised to:
a. refer the client to an African-American therapist
b. use a culturally-sensative approach that ameliorat
- c. Ridley recommends that therapists confront the meaning of the client's cultural paranoia by bringing his/her feelings into conscious awareness and help the client clarify when it is appropriate or inappropriate to self-disclose.
- A therapist relying on a solution-focused family therapy approach would be most interested in which of the following:
a. miracle and scaling questions
b. boundary disturbances
c. joining and mimesis
d. schism and skew
- a. solution-focused therapists us various types of questions to identify solutions to a client's problems. The miracle question involves asking what the individual would notice first if, as a result of a miracle, his/her problem is suddenly gone. The scaling question involves asking members of a couple or family to individually rate a situation in order to help them see how the problem is perceived by others.
- Boundary disturbances are of concern to which type of psychologist:
- a. Gestalt psychologist
- Joining and mimesis are techniques used by the following psychologist:
- b. Structural
- The criminal justice system provides intervention at what level of prevention:
- c. the criminal justice system woul intervene after an individual engages in a criminal act.
(name and describe the other types of intervention)
Primary prevention focuses on all members of an identified group BEFORE a disorder/behavior has occured. Secondary prevention targets specific individuals who are at high risk for a disorder/behavior and typically includes screening. Tertiary prevention intervenes after the disorder/behavior occurs and is aimed at reducing its course and impact.
- A psychologist is hired to develop a community program for seniors that will focus on maintaining social contacts and reducing the risk of social isolation. This program is an example of:
a. milestone prevention
b. primary prevention
- b. since this program is aimed at a group, it is a primary prevention.
It is not secondary prevention because it does not involve some type of screening process to identify a high-risk group and tertiary involves persons who have already engaged in the behavior/disorder. Milestone programs are aimed at people experiencing a transition (e.g., retirement).
- Nonsexist therapy, in comparison to feminist therapy, places greater emphasis on:
a. the impact of sex roles and sexism
b. modification of personal behavior
c. treating men and women the same
d. the egalitarian nature of the therapeut
- b. while feminist therapy procudes change in personal behavior, that change is more consistently framed within the sociopolitial arean in which it occurs. Nonsexist therapy, while recognizing the sociopolitical influences, also looks at personal change seperately.
- According to the Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model, the resistance and immersion stage is characterized by:
a. a preference for the dominent group and resistance to being considered a member of the minority group.
b. conflicting attitu
- c. during this stage, the individual actively resists the dominent cultural group and becomes immersed in his/her own culture
a. incorrect - this is the conformity stage
b. incorrect - this is dissonance stage
d. incorrect - this is internalization /commitment stage of Cross' Nigrescense Model
- Polly Panthos is seeing Dr. Genial for her depressive symptoms. As a practitioner of interpersonal therapy, Dr. Genial will:
a. help Polly gain insight into how interpersonal experiences during childhood are contributing to Polly's problems in the p
- b. the focus of interpersonal therapy is on the link between current interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms.
- Interpersonal therapy targets one or more of the following ares: (name them)
- grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, interpersonal deficits.
- Several types of questions are ued by family therapists. The type of question that is designed to explore the interconnectedness of family members and the recurrent patterns in their relationships is referred to as:
- a. circular questions are based on the assumption of circular causality and used to explore recurrent family patterns.
- Several types of questions are ued by family therapists. The type of question that assumes linear cause and effect relationships and is used to identify family problems is referred to as:
- b. lineal questions
- Several types of questions are ued by family therapists. The type of question that is considered challenging and designed to foster change is referred to as:
- c. strategic questions
- Several types of questions are ued by family therapists. The type of question that fosters reflection on the part of family members so that new options can be identified is referred to as:
- d. reflexive
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