Glossary of EMSC Test 1 Flash Cards

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Define a Mineral
A substance or an entity occurring in nature as part of the earths crust
Define an ORE
4.1. An economic concentrations of one or more minerals from which a desired product can be contained
Define a Fuel
5.1. Combustive or non combustible substances that are used to release energy
5.1.1. Coal
5.1.2. Petroleum
5.1.3. uranium
5.1.4. natural gas
Ore vs. minerals vs. products
1. Ore (Iron Ore)
1.1. Mine
1.2. separate
1.3. concentrate
2. Mineral (Hematite)
2.1. chemical change
3. Raw product (Metallic Iron)
3.1. refinement alloying
4. Finished products (Steel)
1. Commodity
Fuels, metals and non metals
2. Distribution
2.1. In time – Grouping with respect to geologic age
2.2. In Space – Grouping by Geographic location
3. Tectonic Setting
Location in relation to crystal plate boundaries
4. Chemical Classification
Elements, Chemical groups
Commodity Classification
1. Fuels
1.1. Fossil – Petroleum, coal, natural gas, oil shale, tar sand
1.2. Nuclear – Ores of uranium, thorium
Commodity Classification Non – Metallic –
Stone, sand, gravel
3. Metallic
3.1. Ferrous Metals – iron, cobalt, chromium, vanadium, manganese
3.2. Base Metals – copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum
3.3. Light Metals – Aluminum, magnesium, titanium, beryllium, lithium
3.4. Precious Metals – gold, silver, platinum
Mineral Uses
1. Gold
1.1. Jewelry, ornaments, and gold leaf
1.2. Computers
1.3. Dentistry
1.4. Medicines
1.5. as a radiation shield on space craft
1.6. as a substitute or backing for currency
2. Diamond
2.1. the most important gemstone in the industry
2.2. 80 percent of the gem trade is limited to diamonds alone
2.3. the hardest substance found in nature, for times harder than the next hardest mineral
3. Coal
3.1. 85% of the known US fossil energy resource is coal
3.2. makes up 51.5% of the US electricity
3.3. cheapest source of power fuel, averaging less then half of the petroleum and natural gas
3.4. US electricity use increased 140 percent between 1970 and 1999 and will likely be 44% higher in 2020 than in 1999
3.5. 1.2 billion tons of coal is produced in the US annually
3.6. Largest Producers: Wyoming, Kentucky, west Virginia, Pennsylvania
4. Stone, Sand and Gravel (Aggregates)
4.1. residential, commercial and industrial building construction
4.2. public works projects such as roads and highways, bridges, railroads beds, dams, airports, water and sewer systems, tunnels, snow and ice control
4.3. plastic industry, medicine and metallurgy
4.4. more than 90% of asphalt pavements and 80% of concrete are aggregates
4.5. construction of 1 mile of four land interstate highway requires 85,000 tons of aggregates
4.6. the Denver international airport requires 5 million tons of aggregates and the grand coulee dam required 17 million tons;
4.7. an average six room house requires 90 tons of aggregates or construction of one average size hospital or school requires 15,000 tons
4.8. Pennsylvania is #1 in stone production in the US (over 90 million tons annually)

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