Glossary of Drugs Affecting the Volume and Ion Content of Body Fluids
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- Total plasma osmolality = ?
- twice the osmolality of sodium
- A red blood cell and plasma have the same osmotic pressure.
- If the level of salt in the plasma is too high, the cell collapses.
crenation - water is drawn out of the cell.
- If the level of salt in the plasma is too low, the cell swells and ruptures.
hemolysis - water is drawn into the cell.
- Isotonic fluids
- Normal Saline (NS)
Used to replace body fluids
- hypertonic fluids
- More concentrated than plasma
Used to draw water from tissue
- hypotonic fluids
- Less concentrated than plasma
Used to rehydrate tissue
- Causes of Hypokalemia
- Treatment with loop or thaizide diuretics
Vomiting, diarrhea, and laxative abuse
- Treatment of Hypokalemia
- Potassium salts
- How do you treat Hypokalemia
- Dilute to 40meq/L
Infuse no faster than 10meq/hr in adults
Monitor renal function
Monitor serum lab values
- Causes of Hyperkalemia
- Renal disease
- Treatment of Hyperkalemia
- Withhold foods containing potassium
Glucose and insulin
Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (exchange resisn)
- Causes of Hypomagnesium
- Diarrhea, renal disease, chronic ETOH abuse, pancreatitis
- Treatment of Hypomagnesium
- Oral - Mag gluconate
IM or IV - Mag sulfate
- Treatment of Hypermagnesium
- Calcium IV
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