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Glossary of Diuretic Drugs

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Carbonic Anydrase Inhibitors
Acetazolamide
Brinzolamide
Dorzolamide
Loop Diuretics
Furosemide
Bumetanide
Torsemide
Ethacrynic Acid
Thiazides
Hydrochlorothiazide
Chlorothiazide
Metolazone
Chlorthalidone
Indapamide
Potassium Sparing Diuretics
Triaterene
Amiloride
Aldosterone Antagonists
Spironolactone
Eplerenone
Osmotic Diuretics
Mannitol
Acetazolamide
Mech: Inhibits the CA enzyme in prox tubule cells inhibits bicarb reabsorption

Metab: Oral absorption & topical admin -> effects for a few days -> renal excretion

Uses: glaucoma; urinary alkanization; metabolic alkalosis; acute mtn sickness

Toxic: hyperCl- metabolic acidosis; renal stones; renal K+ wasting

C/I: hepatic cirrhosis
Furosemide
Mech: Inhibit Na+ transport in thick limb of loop of Henle

Metab: Oral & parenteral admin.; renal excretion

Uses: CHF/edema; hyperCa++; hyperK+; acute renal failure

Toxic: hypoK+ metabolic alkalosis; ototoxicity; hyperuricemia; hypoMg++, allergenic; excess Na+/H2O loss
Hydrochlorothiazide
Mech: Inhibit Na+ reabsorb in distal convoluted tubule

Metab: Oral absorb; diffs in potency & PHK indapamide; liver metabolism

Uses: HTN; CHF; nephrolithiasis; nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

Toxic: hypoK+ metabolic alkalosis; impaired carbohydrate tolerance; hyerlipidemia; hypoNa+; allergenic
Amiloride (K+ sparing)

Spironolactone (Aldosterone antagonists)
Mech: Amiloride inhibits Na+ flux in collecting tubules; Spiro inhibits aldosterone receptors

Metab: oral admin; some liver metab; renal excretion

Uses: excess mineralcorticoid; CHF; nephrotic syndrome; cirrhosis w/ other drugs (HCTZ); low diuretic ceiling

Toxic: hyperK+; hyperCl- metabolic acidosis; acute renal failure; kidney stones; Spiro -> gynecomastia

C/I: hyperK+
Mannitol
Mech: H2O retention in proximal tubule & descending limb of Henle

Metab: IV admin; glomerular filtration

Uses: incr. urine volume; reduce ICP; reduce IOP

Toxic: ECM volume expansion; dehydration; hyperNa+

C/I severe CHF

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