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Glossary of Diabetes drugs

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Sulfonylureas
(name 4)
Tolbutamide, glyburide, glipizide, chlorpropamide
Sulfonylureas
-stimulate release of endogenous insulin
-close K ch to depolarize cell and release insulin (d/t increase Ca influx)
-can cause hypoglycemia
Metformin
mechanism unknown: may inhibit gluconeogenesis and increase glycolysis
- can ->lactic acidosis
Glitaziones
increase target cell response to insulin
toxicity: wt gain, hepatotoxic (troglitazone)
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
Acarbose, miglitol
Acarbose
inhibits intestinal brush border alpha-glucosidase: delays hydrolysis of sugars and absorption of glucose -> decreased postprandial hyperglycemia
toxicity: GI disturbances
Insulin receptor mechanism
Tyrosine kinase activity
Insulin actions in liver
increase storage of glucose as glycogen
Insulin actions in muscle
Stimulates glycogen and protein synthesis and K uptake
Insulin actions in adipose
facilitates triglyceride storage
Insulin clinical use and toxicities
1. diabetes
2. life-threatening hyperkalemia
3. stress-induced hyperglycemia
Tox: hypoglycemia

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