Glossary of Developmental Psych: Child-Adolescent

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
1) Maternal Drug Taking
a) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome -- a 1991 study found that mothers who consumed just 1 alcoholic beverage a day during pregnancy (and assuming these are drinks that contain moderate alcohol levels per drink), had children who scored lower on IQ tests at age 4 than children whose mothers did not drink. Even when environmental factors were accounted for, IQ scores were still lower.
Describe Substage 1 - Temporal Perspective VS Time Confusion - (of Erikson's Identity vs Role confusion stage.)
1) Temporal Perspective VS Time Confusion -- gaining a true sense of time and the continuity of life. Needed to make plans for future. Usually occurs around ages 15-16.
Describe the study of Developmental Psychology.
Developmental Psychology is the study of how individuals become more advanced and effective as they age, and focuses on the process of BECOMING (how people become who and what they are) as opposed to BEING (the current state of who and what people are)
Describe the Visual Perception of Infants.
Visual Perception - Recent research has shown that neonates are more advanced visually than once believed. Two Examples:
1. visual cliff - a researcher places a checkered cloth over a a table or other raised surface that extends over the table, floor, everything around. Then, a piece of clear plastic or glass is placed on the raised surface so that it extends out from the surface. This gives the appearance, when looking from the top of the clear material, that there is a cliff. A child is placed on the table/surface and the mother stands at the end of the clear plastic or glass, and calls for the child to crawl to her. If the child simply crawls to her, over the edge of the table on the plastic, then the child has not yet developed depth perception. If the child stops at the edge of the table and looks down, but refuses to crawl to the mother, than it can be inferred that the child does have depth perception.
depth perception is usually exhibited between 6 - 14 months; At that point, children are less likely to crawl over the edge of the table.
What is Development?
A sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death. We go through different types of changes:
physical development - motor skills, bone structure, weight, etc.
cognitive development - thought patterns and skills, problem solving, etc.
social development - emotional changes, personality, etc.
Describe the concrete operation of classification.
classification - ability to group items according to identifying characteristics (cats & dogs).
What factors potentially compromise maternal health, and fetal development?
Maternal drug taking, smoking, obsterical medication, maternal emotional state, maternal age, nutrition, and enviromental factors.
Describe the behavior development of infants.
behavioral development - includes reflexes such as rooting, Moro, etc.

What about crying? The average neonate spends 6-7% of awake time crying. Early cries are reflex to discomfort; biological method of communication with care-givers. Many different types of crying - research shows that adults (not just parents) can identify types of cries (pain, anger, etc.).
Maternal Weight?
Nutrition has become popular in more recent years...especially the notion of how much weight to gain during pregnancy. Today, it is more common for a doctor to recommend gaining between 25 and 30 pounds as opposed to 15-18 that was common just a few years ago.
Describe the Sensorimotor Stage.
Sensorimotor - ages 0-2. Stage is marked by infant's increasing ability to organize and coordinate sensations and perceptions with their actions.
Object Permanence is the most significant accomplishment during this stage.
The effects of maternal age on development?
5) Maternal Age

Both Down's Syndrome and infant mortality increase with mother's age. Women age 40 have a 1/100 chance of giving birth to a child with Down's Syndrome. Women age 50 have a 1/10 chance!

Mortality rate is also higher in young mothers (meaning adolescents). This is possibly due to the body's inability to handle pregnancy before a certain developmental level.
Describe an infancy level of sensory development.
Sensory Development
It was once believed that a neonate (new born) was an empty-headed, passive organism that was unable to perceive. Simply ate, drank, slept, etc.
BUT more recently, the consensus is that infancy is an active time of exploration and acquiring information through primitive but effective means (sight, hearing, etc.).
What does a Developmental Psychologist do?
The Developmental Psychologist does the following:
Examines past experiences and influences in order to understand current behavior.
Uses current behavior to predict future behavior. Who we are is assumed to be a function of past experiences.
Describe the Preoperational Stage.
b) Preoperational - ages 2-7. During this stage mental reasoning begins, egocentrism reduces as child approaches end of stage, magical belief system disappears, etc.
Child is very egocentric during this stage.
When does an individual's development begin?
Development begins long before the child is born. From conception, there are changes happening all of the time. In addition, many factors influence how the child develops before birth (ie.MATERNAL HEALTH).
Role of attachment?
Bowlby emphasized the role of attachment in protecting the infant from harm or immediate danger.
Other purposes-provides a vechile for learning rules, social norms, and values.
What developments are of particular importance in infancy (0-2yrs).
1) sensory development (ie visual perception & behavioral dev'p)
Describe Adolescence.
Occurs between the ages of approximately 11-22. Some debate age but most agree that adolescence is correlated with the onset of puberty.
This stage is often characterized as a state of Flux - intermediate zone between childhood and adulthood.

The adolescent no longer wants to be w/mother or father all the time. Now has drive to become independent, search for own solutions and ideas, opinions, and beliefs. But, still not prepared to be self-supporting.
Adolescence are attempting to establish their own identity.
How can the mother's emotional state effect fetal development?
4) Maternal Emotional State
Often overlooked; since more than half of the pregnancies in this country are unplanned, there may be guilt, anxiety, and depression, all of which are mediated by hormonal reactions which pass through the placenta to the baby. Thus, a rise in adrenaline in mom also occurs in baby. This can be damaging when prolonged, but temporary reactions are not as damaging.
Highly emotional mothers during pregnancy have been linked with highly active, irritable infant behaviors, as well as infants who are abnormal sleepers and eaters. Finally, emotionality in mothers has been correlated with miscarriages (greater emotionality is positively correlated with incidences of miscarriage)
Should you respond to a crying baby? Describe the two primary perspectives:
John Watson - he stated that responding to crying was not a good idea because it produces a reward for crying. Thus, the baby learns to cry anytime it wants to see mom or dad, not when it actually is in need.

Mary Ainsworth - impossible to respond too often. Responding establishes secure attachment. Research is INCONCLUSIVE.
What are the effects of Obstetrical Medication on fetal development?
Although prescribed by a doctor, studies have found that pain medication given during labor (in larger doses) have been correlated with sluggish, less animated infant behavior during the first few weeks of life. This has a common effect of hindering the parent-infant bond. In addition, these children have been found to have poor motor coordination and cognitive deficits up to a year old.
Discuss the physical changes experienced by the adolescent.
Rapid Physical Changes - often leads to self-image concerns. More than at other developmental stages, adolescents are concerned (often overwhelmingly so) with fitting in with others, looking a certain way, appearing "pretty" or "god looking", etc. In addition, the sense of identity is sometimes based on physical appearance at this stage in life.
What are the effects of maternal smoking on the fetus?
Maternal Smoking

has immediate effects such as hindering oxygenation of blood to the baby, as well as long-term effects like deficits in growth and learning abilities.
Who is John Bowby?
First on to work on theory of infant attachment.
Attachment is strongest in children 8mnths to 3yrs of age and is most clearly manifest in situs that are potentially frightening to the child.
He observed that attached children:
a) exhibit distress when the object of their attachment leaves them, especially when they are unfamilar with their environment.
b) exhibit pleasure when reunited with that person.
c) exhibit distress when approached by a stranger unless reassurred or comforted by the object of their attachment.
d) are more likely to explore an unfamilar enviro if the object of their attachment is present than if it is not.
How can environmental factors influence development?
Environmental Factors such as RADIATION that can occur from jobs (X-ray technicians, flight attendants) and lead to low birth-weight, stillborns, birth defects, etc.
This is not only for mothers - men exposed to radiation also may contribute to prenatal health problems like chromosomal alterations and mental retardation.
Name three reasons why adolescence more difficult than any other stage.
1) Rapid Physical Changes
2) Cognitive Changes
3) Career Concerns
Who is Mary Ainsworth?

Mary Ainsworth originally worked with Bowlby. She developed the strange situation procedure to measure attachment in infants. From this research, she has established that there are 3 main categories of child-parent attachment:

1) avoidant attachment - infant avoids mother when reunited.

2) secure attachment (65%) - infant actively seeks out contact with mother.

3) ambivalent attachment - seek contact but then resist once contact is made.

List the 7 substages included within Erkison's identity vs role confusion stage, and necessary to the devlopment of identity?
1) Temporal Perspective VS Time Confusion
2) Self Certainty VS Self Consciousness
3)Role Experimentation VS Role Fixation
4) Appreticeship VS Work Paralysis
5) Sexual Polarization VS Bisexual Confusion
6) Leadership & Followership VS Authority Confusion
7)Idealogical Commitment VS Confusion of Values
Describe the infant's preference for visual stimuli.
2. preference for visual stimuli - Frantz (1961) showed infants different pictures of shapes that, to varying degrees, represented a human face. There was a range - some of the pictures just looked like a bunch of unrelated images, while at the other end, some looked like a human face. He found that up to 40% of fixation time was on human face, 20% on complex non-face, 10% on solid color stimuli. REASONS - complex images provide more stimulation; humans may be biologically programmed to keep contact with care givers (survival).
According to Piaget, what is a Schema?
Schemas are mental models that incorporate characteristics of people, places, objects, etc., that the child uses to complete a series of actions (ex. - to stand, an infant may have to reach up, grab side of crib, hold firmly, etc.). These schemas are adaptable to our lives...
Attachment is the process of forming close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infant and care givers.
Describe Substage 3-Role Experimentation VS Role Fixation -(of Erikson's Identity vs Role confusion stage.)
3) Role Experimentation VS Role Fixation -- try out different roles, ideas, philosophies, etc to find own way of thinking and acting.
What is the key component of adolescence?
Very confusing time - seek to answer one question "WHO AM I?" answered when an individual establishes their own sense of identity. This term, "Identity" is a major theme of adolescence.
Identity - a total concept of self - this is a combination of physical, sexual, social, vocational, moral, ideological, and psychological characteristics.
Describe the concrete operation of seriation.
seriation - putting items in order according to size.
Describe Substage 5-Sexual Polarization VS Bisexual Confusion-(of Erikson's Identity vs Role confusion stage.)
5) Sexual Polarization VS Bisexual Confusion -- (criticized greatly for this stage) Searching for a sexual identity people now have to understand and accept their role as either a man or woman, and everything that comes with that role (reason for "Polarization").
Describe early social influences.
At approximately age 6-10, children begin to expand their social contacts beyond family and friends. They may become members of clubs, play on sports teams, etc.
Also, they begin to experience pressure from peers and observe how others act and how they should act. This is the time during which that drive to be like others begins to pick up steam (bring a certain toy to school because everyone else has one). They need to feel ACCEPTED by peers to develop confidence.
Describe Substage 6-Leadership & Followership VS Authority Confusion-(of Erikson's Identity vs Role confusion stage.)
6) Leadership & Followership VS Authority Confusion -- do we become leaders or followers, or do we not know our place in society. Demands from many places and people on the adolescent so now he must decide who to listen to -who is an authority figure.
Def'n Self-Concept.
During this time of IDENTIFICATION, children also begin to develop their SELF-CONCEPT (knowledge of who you are as an individual) by beginning to focus on external factors like name, age, where you live, friends, etc. For example, during this time, ask a child who they are, and you may get responses that include "I am kid" "I am a kid with lots of friends" "I am a kid with lots of friends who lives in Washington DC", etc....
Define identification relevant to a child's process of social development.
Identification-at approximately age 4-5, children become less egocentric begins to identify with parents.

Identification is a process of adopting the attitudes, values, and behaviors of their parents. In addition, children start to imitate same-sex parent (act like daddy).
Describe the concrete operation of conservation.
conservation - realization that changing the form of an object/substance does not change it's amount.
Describe the concrete operation of temporal relations.
temporal relations - concept of first, second, last, before, after, etc.
Egocentrism - infant is only able to perceive the world from their own point of view.
Describe the Concrete operational stage.
Concrete operational - ages 7-12. child develops the ability to perform complex intellectual operations such as conservation, classification, seriation, and temporal relationships.
Social development in childhood.
Involves identification and early social influences.
Trends in childhood (2-11)development...
Childhood (2-11)
As infants become children, they become less socially dependent on their parents and more responsive to peers.
Social and Cognitive Developments in childhood are important to note.
As we age and change by what two processes do our schemas change.
As we age and change so do the schemas by two processes:
1)Assimilation - incorporate new information with previous schemas.
2)Accommodation - alter an existing schema to compensate for new information.
Describe Substage 4-Appreticeship VS Work Paralysis-(of Erikson's Identity vs Role confusion stage.)
4) Appreticeship VS Work Paralysis -- try out jobs to get insight into possible career. Jobs can be very important for improving self-identity. Poor self-image can lead to failure at work, school, etc., and to one's own self opinion.

Describe Substage 7-Idealogical Commitment VS Confusion of Values-(of Erikson's Identity vs Role confusion stage.)
Idealogical Commitment VS Confusion of Values -- "search for fidelity" - find something/someone to believe in.
Describe the Formal operational stage.
Formal operational - ages 11-15. period when the person learns hypothetical reasoning. Now they can function purely on a symbolic, abstract level.
What are the four developmental stages theorized by Piaget?
Stages of Piagetian Development:
a) Sensorimotor
b) Preoperational
c) Concrete operational
d) Formal operational
Describe object permenance.
Object Permanence - most significant accomplishment during this stage - approx. 8 months old, infant acquires the ability to understand that objects that are out of sight still exist.
Discuss the Career Concerns experienced by the adolescent.
Career Concerns - desire to know who we will become often arises here
Discuss the cognitive changes experienced by the adolescent.
Cognitive Changes - the use of introspection (this is new) and abstract reasoning to consider complex ideas and hypotheses can cause many, many problems. For example, "what happens if I don't look good? Are they going to dislike me because I am ugly?"
Describe Substage 2-Self Certainty VS Self Consciousness -(of Erikson's Identity vs Role confusion stage.)
2) Self Certainty VS Self Consciousness -- use past experiences to gain self-confidence and realize that you can succeed in the future. Must go through a period of self-awareness & self-consciousness, during which the adolescent focuses on self-image both physically and socially to accomplish self-certainty. Very Crucial Time.
Discuss 3 major problems with Piaget's Theory.
Some Problems with Piaget's Theory
a) Piaget may have underestimated the cognitive abilities of children (especially when very young) - object permanence may occur earlier; children also may be less egocentric (or at least be able to understand another persons perspective).
b) What about individual differences?
c) This theory is a true stage theory, which may be inappropriate. His estimates for passing through each stage are based on age. what about advancement through stages in response to environmental factors?
Who is Jean Piaget, and how has he contributed to the study of cogntive development?
Jean Piaget is one of the most important Figures in Psychological understanding of Childhood development
His theories of cognitive development is a "stage theory" in that in each stage of development, children are faced with challenging situations which must deal with and overcome through increased mental abilities. Once the challenge is successfully dealt in that stage, the children can move on to the next stage of cognitive development.

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