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Glossary of Dermatology terminology 2

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macule

a circumscribed lesion of up to 5 mm in diameter, characterized by flatness and usually distinguished from surrounding skin by its coloration.
patch

circumcised lesion of more than 5 mm in diameter are characterized by flatness and usually distinguished from surrounding skin by its coloration
papule

elevated, dome shaped, or flat-topped lesion 5 mm or less across.
nodule

elevated lesion with spherical contour greater than 5 mm across. Extends deeper than papules.
plaque

elevated flattopped lesion, usually greater than 5 mm across (may be caused by coalescent papules)
vesicle

fluid-filled raised lesion and 5 mm or less across
bulla

fluid-filled raised lesion greater than 5 mm across
blister
common term used for vesicle or bulla
pustule

discreet, pus-filled, raised lesion
wheal

Itchy, transient, elevated lesion with variable blanching and erythema formed as the result of dermal edema
scale

visible fragments of the stratum corneum as it is shed from the skin. Suggests epidermal disorder such as ichthyosis or psoriasis.
lichenification

thickened and rough skin characterized by prominent skin markings; usually the result of repeated rubbing in susceptible persons
excoriation

traumatic lesion characterized by breakage of the epidermis, causing a raw linear area (a deep scratch); often self-induced
onycholysis

separation of the nail plate from the nail bed
hyperkeratosis

thickening of the stratum corneum, often associated with a qualitative abnormality of the keratin
parakeratosis

modes of keratinization characterized by the retention of the nuclei in the stratum corneum. Normal on mucous membranes.
hypergranulosis

hyperplasia of the stratum granulosum, often due to intense rubbing
acanthosis
(aah can tho sus)

diffuse epidermal hyperplasia. Rete ridges may be elongated.
papillomatosis

surface elevation caused by hyperplasia and enlargement of contiguous dermal papillae
dyskeratosis

abnormal keratinization occurring prematurely within individual cells or groups of cells below the stratum granulosum. They often have brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm.
acantholysis

loss of intracellular connections resulting in loss of cohesion between keratinocytes
spongiosis

intracellular edema of the epidermis that physically pulls keratinocytes away from each other accentuating where they are connected to each other by desmosomes. If severe, can cause intraepidemal vesicles (spongiotic vesicles).
hydropic swelling
intracellular edema of keratinocytes, often seen in viral infections
exocytosis
infiltration of the epidermis by inflammatory or circulating blood cells
erosion

discontinuity of the skin exhibiting incomplete loss of the epidermis
ulceration

discontinuity of the skin exhibiting complete loss of the epidermis and often of portions of the dermis and even subcutaneous fat
vacuolization

formation of vacuoles within or adjacent to cells; often refers to basal cell-basement membrane zone area
lentiginous

referring to a linear pattern of melanocyte proliferation within the epidermal basal cell layer. Can occur as a reactive change or as part of a neoplasm of melanocytes.
Acrochordons
Skin tags. Fleshy, pedunculated masses located on the axillae, trunk, and eyelids. Composed of hyperplastic epidermis over a fibrous connective tissue stalk.

Always benign.

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