Glossary of Day 7 Full Biology 30 Review
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- Asexual reproduction in unicellular organismism is also called b__________ __________.
- binary fission.
You might also say mitosis.
- Examples of asexual reproduction in multicellular organisms would include
- cuttings in plants, root shoots or runners in plants, cutting up flatworms, buds on hydras or sponges, etc.
- The main advantage of sexual reproduction is
- variation in offspring.
- Some advantages of asexual reproduction are
- faster, less energy, no need to find compatible partner.
- The molecule that contains all the information on it that an organism needs to function is
- DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
- DNA is packaged into recognizable chunks or segments known as
- A specific region of DNA that encodes for an inheritable trait is known as a
- All of a species genes taken together make up that species
- In it's simplest form, mitosis starts with one cell and ends with
- two genetically identical daughter cells.
- In it's simplest form, meiosis starts with one cell and ends with
- four genetically reduced daughter cells.
The orginal must be diploid and the result will be haploid cells.
- The cell cycle has two main stages. They are
- interphase and cellular division (usually mitosis).
- Interphase of a cell can be further broken down into these sub stages
- Gap 1 (G1), Synthesis (S), and Gap 2 (G2).
Perhaps G0 can be recognized too if a cell does not continue through to division.
- Some cellular activies that occur during interphase include:
- cell metabolism, such as protein, lipid, carbohydrate synthesis; cell organelle
synthesis, cellular respiration, growth of the cell, synthesis of new DNA; DNA replication
- The main activity of the cell during "S" phase is
- the doubling of it's DNA strands.
- A checkpoint in the cell cycle is a point where the cell cycle will
- stop and wait for key cellular processes to finish before advancing to the next stage in the cycle.
- There are _________ main check points in the cell cycle.
- Give an environmental limit to cellular division.
- One of these:
density-depentent inhibition: high densities stop division.
anchorage dependence: cells must be anchored to a substrate to divide.
- Cancer cells are regular body cells that now
- ignore cell cycle check points, and do not exhibit anchorage dependence or density-dependent inhibition.
- If cancer cells leave the site of original tumor growth the tumor is called ___________ and this process of spreading is called ____________
- Radiation and chemotherapy work against cancer cells because these treatments target
- all actively dividing cells.
- During "S" phase, each chromosome is replicated and now contains two ________ ___________.
- sister chromatids.
- Sister chromatids are bound together by a
- centromere or kinetochore.
- The stages of mitosis given in order are:
- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and then Cytokinesis.
- Key events that happen in prophase of mitosis are:
- Nuclear membrane disappears
Centrioles move to the poles (animal cell)
Spindle apparatus forms
- Metaphase of mitosis is easy to recognize because
- the chromosomes line up along the equitorial plate of the cell.
- During anaphase of mitosis the sister chromosomes are
- separated and pulled toward the poles.
- Some key events that occur during telophase of mitosis are:
- Chromosomes become less dense
New nuclear membrane begins to form
- The cytoplasmic event that immediately follows telophase is known as
- The start of cytokinesis in animal cells can be seen by the evidence of a
- cleavage furrow in the cell membrane
- The start of cytokinesis in plant cells can be seen by the evidence of a
- cell plate begining to form along the equitorial region of the cell.
The cell pictured in anaphase of mitosis is labeled
The cell pictured in late prophase of mitosis is labeled
The cell pictured in interphase is labeled
- Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes that
- are the same size, shape, and gene assortment (the the genetic content may vary)
- The number of chromosome sets in an organism is known as it's ____________ ________.
- ploidy count
or "n" number.
- Cells with two complimentary sets of chromosomes are referred to as
(has homologous pairs)
- diploid or somatic cells.
- Cells with only one set of chromosomes are referred to as
(no homologous pairs)
- haploid or gamete cells.
- Some key events that occur in prophase I of meiosis are
- homologous chromosomes pair or synapse to form tetrads
nuclear membrane dissapears
centrioles move to poles (animal cell)
- In meiosis I ____________ __________ are separated. In meiosis II ____________ __________ are separated, just like in mitosis.
- homologous chromosomes
- Chromosomal reduction (from diploid to haploid) occurs in meiosis ____ (I or II).
- meiosis I.
- List three ways that genetic information is varied through sexual reproduction
- independent assortment of chromosomes
crossing over during tetrad formation
random fertilization (or partners)
The principal being illustrated in this diagram is
- independent assortment
The above picture illustrates the process involved in creating a
- The failure of one synaptic pair of chromosomes to separate during anaphase I is known as
- X_ (X0) -- no Y chromosome.
A rare chromosomal disorder of females (1 in 2500) characterized by short stature and the lack of sexual development at puberty.
- Turner's Syndrome.
- XXY -- extra X chromosome.
1 in 700 to 1 in 1000 males are born with this condition. About half show lower IQ, slower development. Most are sterile.
- Kleinfelter's syndrome.
- Extra copy of chromosome 21.
- Down syndrome.
- DNA is found in the nucleous of most living cells. Give another source of DNA that might be found in a cell.
- DNA in mitochonria.
DNA in chloroplasts.
- In an organism's life cycle, what process moves from diploid to haploid, and then from haploid back to diploid?
- In life cycles that have multicellular organisms in both the diploid and haploid stages, the haploid organism is known as a ______________.
- In life cycles that have multicellular organisms in both the diploid and haploid stages, the diploid organism is known as a ______________.
- Many small or single celled organisms will reproduce using _____________ unless conditions become hostile and will then use _____________ .
- alternation of generations is
- The alternation of gametophyte and sporophyte stages in the life cycle of a plant.
- anaphase is
- An intermediate stage of nuclear division during which chromosomes or chromatids are pulled to the poles of the spindle.
- binary fission is
- Simple cell division in single-celled organisms.
- Cancer can be simply defined as
- A syndrome that involves the uncontrolled and abnormal division of cells.
- The cell cycle is
- The cycle of cell growth, replication of the genetic material and nuclear and cytoplasmic division.
- Cell Division can be simply defined as
- The process by which two cells are formed from one.
- The centriole is
- A short cylindrical organelle, found in pairs, and responsible for the formation of a spindle apparatus during division in animal cells.
- A centromere is
- the constricted region of a chromosome, to which the spindle fibres attach during division.
- A chromatid is
- One of the two side by side replicas produced by chromosome replication before mitosis or meiosis.
- A clone is a
- An individual formed by some asexual process so that it is genetically identical to its parent.
- cytokinesis is
- The division of the cytoplasm of a cell into two daughter cells.
- A cell having two chromosome sets, or an individual having two chromosome sets in each of its cells. Is known as a __________ cell
- An abnormal human phenotype, including mental retardation, due to a trisomy of chromosome 2l is known as
- Down syndrome.
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