Glossary of DNA viruses
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- What are the 10 DNA viruses?
- 1. Five Herpes viruses
2. Hepatitis B
- What are the 5 DNA Herpes viruses?
- 1. Herpes simplex
2. Varicella Zoster VZV
5. Human Herpes viruses 6/8
- What are the 2 types of Herpes simplex HSV, what do they cause?
- -Type 1: cold sores
-Type 2: genital herpes
- Which of the 2 simplex herpes is more common?
- Type 1
- What is Whitlow?
- Herpetic whitlow - sores on fingers.
- How is Herpes simplex type 2 transmitted?
- Via direct contact (sexual)
- What are symptoms of genital herpes?
- -may be Asymptomatic, or-
1. Vesicles, which pop and make painful lesions w/ crusting.
2. Recurrence - always a potential problem.
- Who can get herpes?
-Men it gives dysuria
-Infants get Herpes of the eye.
- How is genital herpes diagnosed?
- 1. Culture - 100% specific and sensitive when vesicles still intact.
3. Serological - most often used
- When can culture be used to diagnose genital herpes?
- ONLY when the vesicles are still intact; but they break within 24 hrs, so this is less useful.
- What is VZV?
- Varicella Zoster Virus
- What does Varicella virus cause?
What does Zoster virus cause?
- What is Varicella gangrenosa?
- Bad infection when kids scratch chicken pox and get infected.
- How does Shingles occur?
- The virus moves up the CNS, lays latent for a while, then moves down and causes a concentrated unilateral and very painful infection.
- What is the characteristic feature of CMV?
- Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions that resemble owl's eyes.
- How do humans normally get exposed to CMV, what occurs? When does it become a problem?
- -Through everyday contact; get vague flu symptoms, develop immunity, never knew it.
-Problem if Pregnant woman contracts it (fetal harm), or Immunocompromised patient.
- What are the 3 diseases EBV can cause?
- 1. Infectious mononucleosis (diagnose serologically)
2. Burkitt's lymphoma (usually in African children)
3. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (usually in China)
- What infection is HHV-6 known to cause, in whom? What are sympt?
- Roseola, 6th disease, Childhood disease; Rash and high fever.
- What 2 diseases may HHV-6 be associated with?
- 1. Bone graft rejection
2. Multiple sclerosis
- How is HHV-8 transmitted, and what is it suspected to cause?
- 1. Transmit by blood
2. Kaposi's sarcoma - sores on mouth of Aid's patients.
- Which 2 Hepatitis viruses are transmitted Fecal-oral? Are they chronic?
- Hep A and E; not chronic.
- What 3 Hepatitis viruses are trnsmtd via blood/body fluids?
Are they chronic?
- Hep B, C, D. Yes; can become chronic.
- What is unique about Hep D?
- It is incomplete; can only exist with Hepatitis B.
- What is Hepatitis, and what are 5 non-hepvirus causes?
- Just "Inflamed Liver"
3. Toxic Reaction
- What are 7 symptoms of Hepatitis?
- 1. Fever
- What are 3 spcf non-hep causes of Hepatitis?
- CMV, EBV, Leptospira.
- How are the Hepatitis viruses diagnosed?
- Serologically with Ag and Ab markers.
- What is NECESSARY to diagnose the type of Hepatitis?
- 1. Ab markers
- What are the Adenoviruses causes of? What are they possibly related to?
- 1. Cause respiratory tract and conjunctiva infections.
2. May relate to tendency for obesity.
- What are the 2 Papovavirus types?
- 1. HPV (human papilloma)
- What 3 ways can the HPV present?
- 1. Common warts (flat/raised)
2. Plantar warts (on foot)
3. Genital warts
- What does Genital warts do to women?
- Puts them at a higher risk for cervical cancer; need frequent papsmears.
- What are the 2 Polyomaviruses?
- 1. JC Jesus Christ
2. BK Burger King
- What does the JC virus cause?
- Progressive multifocal encephalopathy.
- What does the BK virus cause?
- It's actually subclinical, and not associated w/ any syndrome.
- What 3 diseases are caused by the Parvovirus?
- 1. Fifth disease
2. Aplastic crisis in immunocomp
3. Fetal hydrops
- What is Fifth disease?
What are 2 common symptoms?
- A childhood erythematous infection.
1. Slapped Cheek Appearance
2. High Fever
- What is Fetal Hydrops?
- The accumulation of fluid in the body of the fetus.
- What are the 4 Poxviruses?
- 1. Smallpox (aka Variola)
4. Molluscum contagiosum
- Why do we still get educated re: Smallpox, despite eradication?
- Because it has potential for bioterrorism.
- What are 5 characteristics to remember re: Smallpox?
- 1. VERY VERY infectious
2. Causes severe poxing
3. High fever
4. only 1/3 victims survive
5. Causes severe scarring
- What is the Vaccinia virus?
- The vaccine for smallpox!
- What is known to be a carrier of Monkeypox?
- Giant Gambian rats - no they are not cute.
- What symptoms are associated w/ a Monkeypox infection?
- Severe lesions and fever.
- What is Molluscum contagiosum?
- A rare STD that causes pox lesions on the genitals.
- What are Prions?
What were they previously called?
- NOT Viruses; Malformed protein triggered by something. Don't respond to disinfectants, heat, or UV lite.
Prev, Slow viruses.
- What is another name for Prions?
- Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE)
- What are the 4 TSEs?
- 1. Kuru
2. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
3. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow)
4. Chronic wasting disease.
- What is Kuru, how was it transmitted?
- First known Prion, found in New Guinea in cannibals who ate brains at funerals.
- What does Creutz-Jakob do?
- Infects the CNS/brain (all TSEs do)
- What is Mad Cow disease?
- A new variant of Creutz-Jakob; causes CNS abnormalities in Cows; when humans eat cow, transmitted.
- What is Chronic wasting disease a problem in?
- What is Guillain Barre syndrome?
When does it occur?
- An Ascending Paralysis that is an autoimmune disease and causes nerve demyelination via Ab.
-Follows EBV, CMV, and C. jejuni infections, possibly the flu vaccine as well!
- What are the biggest organisms in medical microbiology?
What are the smallest?
What can be seen w/lite microscope? What can't?
Everything except Viruses.
- what can't grow on artificial media?
- -Chlamydia and rickettsiae
- What is the only organism that doesn't have a cell membrane?
- What doesn't have a cell wall?
- -Some parasites
- What is the process of culturing viruses?
- 1. Inoculate .2-.5 ml specimen in a cell culture tube
2. Incubate at 33 or 37'C, maybe use roller drums.
3. Observe for growth.
- What cultures the fastest?
What cultures the slowest?
- Fast: Herpes - 5 days at most.
Slow: CMV - up to 5 weeks.
- What cultures are observed for Cytopathic effect (CPE)?
- All except for:
- What results are observed for identifying Influenza/Para/Mumps/Measles?
- Hemadsorption - by using Guinea pig RBCs; use Rhesus RBCs for Measles.
- What is Intereference used for identifying?
- What is Cytopathic effect used for detecting?
- HSV, CMV, Varicella Zoster, Enteroviruses, Rhinoviruses, ADenoviruses,
Resp Synctial viruses.
- Compare Hep A and B:
-Type of disease
- HepA: Fecal-oral trans, 2-6 wk incubation, Acute disease. -Rarely a Carrier
-aka Infectious Hepatitis.
HepB: Blood/fluid transm., 6-26 wk incubation, Acute OR Chronic disease.
-More commonly carrier state
-Aka, Serum Hepatitis
- Which hepatitis virus is often tranmsmitted sexually?
- Hep B
- Which are the more common Hepatitis viruses seen?
- Hep B - most
Hep A - 2nd
- Which Hepatitises are there vaccines for?
- Hep A and Hep B
- Which hepatitis viruses are RNA vs. DNA?
- RNA: A, C, D, E
DNA: only B
- Where are the majority of HIV-infected people located?
- In Subsaharan Africa - 70%
and half of those are women.
- What is the leading cause of death in Africa?
- What population is most at risk for getting AIDS,
-In the US
- US: gay males
- How should hospital spills from an HIV-infected patient be cleaned?
- with a 1:10 dilution of bleach.
- What is the major immunological effect of HIV?
- Destruction of CD4+ T cells; significant defect in cell mediated immunity.
- What are 3 common stages in the progression of HIV?
- 1. Asymptomatic, but HIV Ab+
2. Prodrome to AIDS - decreased Tcells, lymphadenop, Fever for over 3 mo. Fatigue/nightsweats
weight loss, diarrhea
- What changes in symptoms occur in AIDS?
- -Decreased T4 cells, lymphokines, macrophage functionality.
-Frequent opportunistic infctns.
- What is Kaposi's sarcoma?
- A metastesizing malignancy with red to purple skin blotches.
- What are the 3 most common recurrent infection in AIDs?
- -Pneumocystis jiroveci (U.S.)
- Which lab method is used to
-Screen for HIV
-Confirm the test
- Screen - ELISA
Confirm - Western blot
- What is normal Th to Tc ratio?
What is it in AIDS?
- 2:1 normally
<1 in AIDS
- What is the best test for prognosis/progression to AIDS?
What is the best predictor of opportunistic infections?
- -Viral load testing
-CD4 counts regularly
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