Glossary of Culinary: Food Safety and Sanitation

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Define: sanitation
The creation and maintenance of conditions that will prevent food contamination or food-borne illness.
Define: contamination
The presence, generally unintended, or harmful organisms or substances. When consumed in sufficient quantities, food-borne contaminants can cause illness or injury, long-lasting disease or even death.
Name the three (3) types of contamination.
1) Biological
2) Chemical
3) Physical
What are the two (2) ways contamination occurs?
1) Direct contamination
2) Cross-contamination
What are the three (3) shapes that bacteria can be classified?
1) Rods
2) Cocci (discs)
3) Spirilla (corkscrews)
Define: biological hazard
A danger to the safety of food caused by disease-causing microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses or fungi.
Define: chemical hazard
A danger to the safety of food caused by substances such as cleaning agents, pesticides and toxic metals.
Define: physical hazard
A danger to the safety of food caused by particles such as glass chips, metal shavings, bits of wood or other foreign matter.
Define: microorganisms
Single-celled organisms as well as tiny plants and animals that can be seen only through a microscope.
Define: putrefactives
Bacteria that spoil food but without rendering it unfit for human consumption so are not a sanitation concern.
Define: pathogen
Any organism that causes disease; usually refers to bacteria.
How are the three (3) ways pathogenic bacteria cause illnesses in humans?
1) intoxication
2) infection
3) toxin-mediated infection
Define: toxin
Byproducts of the life processes of certain bacteria which cannot be smelled, seen or tasted, but cause illness by ingestion.
What is a well-known example of intoxication?
What is a well-known example of infection?
How does food-borne infection occur?
Live pathogenic bacteria are ingested then live in the consumer's intestinal tract. These bacteria can be destroyed by cooking foods to suffiently high temperatures, usually 165°F or higher.
What are two examples of toxin-mediated infection?
Clostridium perfringens (aka CP), and Escherichia coli (aka E. Coli).
What does PHF stand for? What are their characteristics?
Potentially Hazardous Foods - generally are high in protein and include animal based products, cooked grains and some cooked vegetables.
How are the characteristics of a toxin-mediated infection?
When the living organisms are ingested, they establish colonies in humna or animal intestinal tracts where they then produce toxins.
What is the span of the "temperature danger zone"?
40°F to 140°F (aka 4°C to 60°C).
What does FDA stand for?
Food and Drug Administration
What does USDA stand for?
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Define: time-and-temperature principle
Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. This controls the growth of bacteria my maintaining internal temp of hot foor at 140°F or above, and cold food internal tem at 41°F or below.
Define: pH
A measurement of the acid or alkali content of a solution expressed on a scale of 0 to 14.0. A pH of 7.0 is considered neutral or balanced. Lower pH is more acidic, and higher pH is more alkaline.
What pH range do bacteria generally prefer?
pH of 6.6 to 7.5.
What are facultative bacteria?
Bacteria that can adapt and will survive with or without oxygen. Most pathogenic bacteria are this type.
Define: parasites
Tiny organisms that depend on nutrients from a living host to complete their life cycle.
What are three (3) types of parasites? and where do they commonly come from?
1) Trichinosis (pork or game)
2) Anisakiasis (fish organs)
3) Cyclospora (Produce from undeveloped countries and untreated water contaminated by feces.)
What are two (2) well-known examples of food-borne illnesses caused by viruses?
1) Hepatitis A
2) Norwalk virus
What are the two (2) most commonly known forms of fungi?
1) Molds
2) Yeasts
What is the medical terminology for "mad cow disease"?
BSE - bovine spongiform encephalopathy
What is the name of the extremely rare disease in humans similar to mad cow disease?
nvCJD - new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease
Describe the effects of mad cow disease and its human equivalent, nvCJD.
They are slowly degenerative and invariably fatal diseases affecting the central nervous system with unusually long incubation periods. Researchers do not know what causes them.
Define: Hepatitis A
A virus that enters the food supply through shellfish harvested from polluted waters. Transmitted by humans with poor personal hygiene and cross contamination.
Define: Norwalk virus
Spread almost entirely by poor personal hygiene among infected food handlers. Found in human feces, contaminated water or vegetables fertilized by manure.
This can be destroyed by high cooking temperatures but not by sanitizing solutions or freezing.
Norwalk virus
What foods are most likely to transmit viral diseases?
Foods not heated after handling such as salads, sandwiches, milk, baked products, uncooked fish and shellfish, and sliced meats.
Define: fungi
A large group of plants ranging from single-celled organisms to giant mushrooms, and are found everywhere - in the soil, air and water.
What requires water and carbohydrates (sugar or starch) for survival?
Yeasts consume these then expel alcohol and carbon dioxide gas.
What does FMD stand for?
foot-and-mouth disease, aka hoof-and-mouth disease.
What are the five (5) suggestions for cooling food?
1) Refrigerate semisolid foods at 40°F (4°C) or below in containers that are less than 2 inches deep
2) Avoid crowding the refrigerator; allow air to circulate around foods
3) Vent hot foods in an ice-water bath
4) Prechill indredients such as mayonnaise before preparing cold foods
5) Store cooked foods above raw foods to prevent cross-contamination.
What are the five (5) suggestions to heating or reheating food?
1) Heat small quantities at a time
2) Stir frequently
3) Heat foods as close to service time as possible
4) Use preheated ingredients whenever possible to prepare hot foods
5) Never use a steam table for heating/reheating foods. Reheat before placing in a steam table for holding.
What are the phases in the bacterial growth curve?
1) Lag phase
2) Log phase
3) Stationary phase
4) Decline or negative growth phase
What types of molds form toxins that have been linked to food-borne illnesses?
How are toxins more dangerous?
They are heat resistant so not usually destroyed by normal cooking methods. Therefore, foods that develop mold should be discarded and any container or storage area cleaned and sanitized.
Define: mold
Algaelike fungi that form long filaments or strands that often extend into the air, appearing as cottony or vevety masses on food. Large colonies are easily visible to the naked eye.
Name three (3) types of contamination included in chemical hazards.
1) residual chemicals used in growing the food supply
2) food service chemicals
3) toxic metals
Name four (4) types of residual chemicals.
1) Antibiotics
2) Fertilizers
3) Insecticides
4) Herbicides
What food service chemicals could contaminate food?
Cleaners, polishes, pesticides, abrasives, bug spray, drain cleaner, oven cleaner, silver polish and even soap residue.
What types of metal have been known to cause chemical contamination & poisoning through their dispersion in food or water?
Lead, mercury, copper, zinc and antimony.
How does food become contaminated with Antimony?
This is used in bonding enamelware. It can be released into food when the enamel is chipped or cracked, so enamelware is prohibited in food service facilities.
What types of food should not be used in zinc (galvanized) or unlined copper containers?
Acidic foods such as tomatoes or wine can cause these types of metal ions to be released by their containers into the food.
What are two (2) ways a person can get lead poisoning?
Lead entering the water supply from lead pipes and solder, and from the glaze on some imported ceramic items.
Give some examples of how foreign objects may find their way into foods by mistake.
Metal shavings created by a worn can opener.
Pieces of glass from a broken container.
Hair and dirt.
Give three (3) methods that help reduce or prevent cross-contamination.
1) personal cleanliness
2) dish and equipment cleanliness
3) pest management
Define: clean
To remove visible dirt and soil.
Define: sanitize
The reduce pathogenic organisms to safe levels
Define: sterilize
To destroy all living microorganisms.
Define: rotate stock
To use products in the order in which they were received; all perishable and semi-perishable goods, whether fresh, frozen, canned or dry, should be used according to the first in, first out principle.
What does FIFO stand for?
First in, first out - how to rotate stock.
What does HACCP stand for?
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points - an effective and efficient system, developed in 1971 for NASA, for managing and maintaining sanitary conditions in all types of food service operations.
What are the six (6) steps on a HACCP System flowchart?
1) Identify & evaluate potential hazards.
2) Identify the Critical Control Points (where hazards can be reduced/eliminated.
3) Establish procedures for controlling & correcting.
4) Monitor the CCP and correct as needed.
5) Set up and use a record keeping system.
6) Verify that the system is working and adjust as needed.
What does CCP stand for?
Critical Control Points in the HACCP system.
Define: Staph
Common name for bacterial illness, Staphylococcus aureus which forms a toxin, and occurs in starchy foods, cold meats, bakery items, custards, milk products and humans with infected wounds or sores.
Define: Perfringens or CP
Common name for Clostridium perfringens which forms both cells & toxins, and occus in reheated meats, sauces, stews and casseroles.
Define: Botulism
Common name for Closridium botulinum which forms toxin, cells and spores. Found in cooked foods helf for an extended time at warm temps with limited oxygen such as rice, potatoes, smoked fish, and canned vegetables.
Define: Salmonella
Forms cells, and found in poultry, eggs, milk, meats and fecal contamination.
Define: Strep
Common name for Streptococcus which forms cells. Its common source is infected (sick) food handlers.
Define: E. coli
What is it's numeric name?
Short for Escherichia coli 0157:H7 - enteropathogenic strains). Creates cells and toxins and found in any food, especially raw milk, raw vegetables, raw or rare beef, humans.
Define: Listeria
Short for Listeria monocytogenes. Forms cells. Found in milk products, humans and deli meats.
What is the CDC's (Center for Disease Control and Prevention)policy for food service workers who are HIV+?
They should not be restricted from work unless there is another infection or illness, as it is not spread by food.
What is an acceptable solution for sanitizing?
A combination of 1 gallon of lukewarm water with 1 tablespoon of chlorine bleach. Use a clean cloth dipped in this to wipe off knives, utensils and cutting boards. Replace this solution every two hours.
How are pests controlled?
1) Building them out of the facililty
2) Creating an environment in which they can't find food, water or shelter
3) Relying on professional extermination
What is an alternative way to sanitizing rather than using a chemical solution?
Immersing an item in 171°F (77°C) water for at least 30 seconds.

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