Glossary of Culinary: Culinary History
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- Who is Antonin Carême?
- Born June 8, 1783, died 1833, mastered grande cuisine. Known as "cook of kings and the king of cooks." Also an author of many important texts, and designed kitchen tools, equipment and uniforms.
- What is "Cuisine Bourgeoisie"?
- Name given to the simpler foods and tastes of the middle class in 19th century France --- in contrast to grande cuisine.
- When did the first modern restaurant open?
- According to the French, it was opened in 1765 by Mr Boulanger, a Parisian taverkeeper who won a court case allowing him to prepare foods previously allowed only to the monopoly of guilds.
- Define: Grande Cuisine
- The rich, intricate and elaborate cuisine of the 18th & 19th century French aristocracy based on the rational identification, development and adoption of strict culinary principles. Emphasizing the how & why of cooking, it was the first to distinguish itself from regional cuisines which emphasize tradition of cooking.
- Define: Classic Cuisine
- A late 19th & early 20th century refinement and simplification earlier French cuisine. It relies on the thorough exploration of culinary principles & techniques, and emphasizes the refined preparation & presentation of superb ingredients.
- Define: Nouvelle Cuisine
- French for "new cooking"; a mid-20th century movement away from many classic cuisine principles and toward a lighter cuisine based on natural flavors, shortened cooking times and innovative combinations.
- Define: New American Cuisine
- The late 20th century movement (beginning in the 1970's) in California but has spread across the US. It stresses the use of fresh, locally grown, seasonal produce and high quality ingredients simply prepared in a fashion that preserves and emphasizes natural flavors.
- Define: Fusion Cuisine
- The blending or use of ingredients and/or preparation methods from various ethnic, regional or national cuisines in the same dish.
- What is "haute cuisine"?
- Another name for "grande cuisine."
- What is "trans-national cuisine"?
- Another name for "fusion cuisine."
- Who is Auguste Escoffier?
- Born Oct 28, 1846, died 1935, refined grande cuisine and developed classic cuisine and is called "Emperor of the world's kitchens." Worked with Cesar Ritz at the Savoy in London.
- Who is Charles Ranhofer?
- The first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico's in New York City. In 1893, he published his "franco-american" encyclopedia of cooking "The Epicurean" containing more than 3500 recipes.
- What chefs pioneered nouvelle cuisine?
- Fernand Point and those he trained including Paul Bocuse, Jean & Pierre Troisgros, Alain Chapel, Francois Bise, Louis Outhier, Michel Guérard and Roger Vergé.
- Who is Alice Waters?
- Opened Chez Panisse in Berkeley, California in 1971. Emphasized serving fresh food, simply prepared that preserved the foods' natural flavors and rejected processed & packaged foods.
- When did fusion cuisine catch on?
- A cuisine that came into being during the mid-1980's.
- Who *refined* and modernized classic cuisine (laying foundation for nouvelle cuisine)?
- Fernand Point.
- How did the French Revolution (1789-1799) impact the budding restaurant industry?
- Aristocracy, guilds and monopolies were abolished, allowing the public access to the skills and creativity of well-trained, sophisticated chefs who had worked in the arisocracy's private kitchens.
- Who was Antoine Beauvilliers?
- (1754-1817), owner of the Grande Taverne de Londres who advanced the development of the modern restaurant by offering patrons a menu listing available dishes during fixed hours. Had impeccably trained wait staff serve them in an elegant setting.
- Name some technologies that profoundly changed cooking.
- 1) Clay & metal vessels that could contain liquids and withstand heat. 2) The cast-iron stove. 3) Food storage & preservation techniques. 4) Engineering advancements.
- What is "global cuisine"?
- Foods (often commercially produced items) or preparation methods that have become ubiquitous throughout the world; for example, curries and french fries.
- What is "national cuisine"?
- The characteristic cuisine of a nation.
- What is "regional cuisine"?
- A set of recipes based upon local ingredients, traditions and practices; within a larger geographical, political, cultural or social unit, these are often variations of one another that blend together.
- What is "ethnic cuisine"?
- The cuisine of a group of people having a common cultural heritage, as opposed to the cuisine of a group of people bound together by goegraphy or political factors.
- What six qualities will help mature a student chef into a good professional chef?
- - Knowledge
- What is gastronomy?
- The art and science of eating well.
- What is a gourmet?
- A connoisseur of fine food and drink.
- What is a gourmand?
- A connoisseur of find food and drink, often to excess.
- What are gourmet foods?
- Foods of the highest quality, perfectly prepared and beautifully persented.
- How many people were employed in the food service industry in 2001?
- More than 11 million people making it the second largest employer after the government.
- What was the daily & annual food service sales average in dollars in 2001?
- $1.1 billion per day, annual sales approx $400 billion.
- What began the American culinary revolution of the late 20th century?
- The Immigration Act of 1965 bringing in Asians with their own rich culinary traditions, particularly fiery hot cuisines. Mexican food became mainstream at this time too.
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