Glossary of Crisis of the Later Middle Ages Terms

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Philip the Fair
Father of the three kings of France during 1314-1328. These kings failed to resolve the agrarian crisis of the 13th and 14th century.
Black Death (Plague
A Plague that began in 1291 and ravaged Europe. An estimated 1/3 met their end to this terrible disease. The plague greatly shaped the institutions of Europe, and changed history forever.
Statue of Laborers
An attempt by landlords and employers to combat the higher wages as a result of the plague. This attempt was largely unsuccessful.
Religious fanatics who believed that the plague was a result of sin, and whipped themselves for penance.
Dance of Death
A work of art that shows a skeleton leading a living person into the land of the dead.
100 Years War
War that took place over a 116 year period, with pauses. This war was fought between France and England, over the issue of the English king’s power over France.
Important battle in the 100 years war that proved the superiority of the English longbow over the French crossbow.
Joan of Arc
French woman who inspired the French to win the Battle of Orleans and eventually the war. However, she was declared a heretic and burned at the stake.
English Commons
A representative assembly that worked together to achieve their goals. They held the country’s funds, and could often manipulate the monarchy with this power.
Babylonian Captivity
Period of time (1309-1376) when the popes of the Roman Catholic church resided in Avignon, France. This later resulted in the Great Schism of Western Christianity.
Catherine of Sienna
Dominican mystic who beseeched the pope to return to Rome. The request was not granted. However, she gained widespread support.
Legal Pluralism
Holding several legal offices at the same time.
Group of people who believed that the church should be run by a council
Marsiglio of Padua
Wrote Defensor Pacis. Believed that the church was subordinate to the state.
Defensor Pacis
Book written by Marsiglio of Padua. The book claimed that the church had no jurisdiction and was inferior to the state. The book was condemned and Marsiglio was excommunicated.
John Wycliff
Philosopher who thought sincere Christians should read the Bible for themselves. His followers were called Lollards. His words struck at the very heart of the current church’s institution.
Followers of Wyclif. They allowed women preachers and called for a return to a simpler faith.
Council of Constance
Council brought together to end the Great Schism, to reform the church, and to end heresy.
Jan Hus
Czech priest who challenged the church. He was burned at the stake.
John and Margaret Paston
A couple whose letters provided a valuable insight into the marriage life of people during the Middle Ages
Fur collar crime
Crimes committed by renegade nobles
Muslim subjects of Christian kings in Spain
Muslims who lived in Spain
Jakub Swinka
Archbishop of Gniezno during 1283 to 1314. He hated Germans with a passion.
John of Cracow
The counterpart of Jakub Swinka who hated Poles with a passion.
Black Death Plague
A Plague that began in 1291 and ravaged Europe. An estimated 1/3 met their end to this terrible disease. The plague greatly shaped the institutions of Europe, and changed history forever.
Great Schism
The split of the Catholic Church. Powers in Europe aligned themselves with either the Antipope Clement VII or Urban VI. This split was resolved in 1417.
John of Drazic
Bishop of Prague. He only allowed Bohemians to enter his seminary.
Dalimil Chronicle
A survey of Bohemian history which includes the hostility the Czech people felt toward the Germans
Statute of Kilkenny
A law that prohibited the marriage between Irish and British people.
Author of the “Divine Comedy.” He was an Italian writer who held several positions in the city government. Later, he decided to write his “comedy.”

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