Glossary of Crim Chapter 3

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Critique of Neutralization
Assumes delinqs feel guilty, some rationalize after and not before
doesnt help us understand chronic offenders
moral development may differ by gender
Self Control
Hirschi and Gott
All crime stems from lack of self-cont. Such pple act impulsively, value risk and advent.
Low self cont comes from bad child rearing.
Sykes and Matza
delinqs neutralize guilt BEFORE committing crime
5=Denial of responsibility, injury, victim, condemners, and appeal to higher loyalties
Social Control Theory
Travis Hirschi
Asks why we DONT commit crime.
bonds to conventional social institutions: family, schools, relig may keep us frm deviance.
Attachment, Commitment, Involvement, Belief
Critique of Containment
Chicken and Egg e.g. -self concepts could be result of being labeled delinq and not other way around.
What are the 4 ties to society under Soc. Control Thry?
Attachment-degree to which we care about opnions of teachers, parents, etc (more we care for their views, less likely to violate norms and hurt them)
Commitment-amt of imptance on conventions eg good education
Invlvement-amt of time spent on conventions (more time doing legit things, less time on deviance)
Belief-acceptance of norms
All 4 related
What question do control theorists ask that others do not?
Why DONT pple commit crime
Critique of Soc. Control Theory?
Corelation on bonding low
more related to minor delinq than serious delinq
Differential Identification Theory
Daniel Glaser
Reference groups of pple we admire and want to copy.
Dont have to know to identify with them.
If ref grps are deviant, more likely to be deviant as well.
Control Balance Theory
Charles Tittle
Pple with too much or too little control commit crime.
Execs have too much control and commit crime. Urban poor have too little.
Thus a society with great inequality should experience more crime.
Critique of Differential Association
Which comes first, crim behavior or assoc with crims?
Not all crims inflnc'd by "intimate personal grps" eg rapists and murders
Sutherland says mass media has little effect but didnt anticipate tvs effect
Hard to test
Didnt consider whether would work the same for females
Critque of Self Control
Circular reasoning, assumes all crime is spontaneous and unskilled=too simplistic
Two kinds of controls (in control theories)
Personal Controls: individ conscience, commitment to law, +self concept
Social Controls:family, schools religion
Imitation Theory
Gabriel Tarde
Influenced Sutherland
Crims imitate each other in proportion to the amt of close contact they have.
Differential Association
Edwin Sutherland
Crim behavior is learned
occurs w/in intimate groups
learn how to commit crime and justify crime
Pple will break the law if they develop more lawbreaking attitudes than law-abiding attitudes.
(Most notable historically in the sociological study of crime)
varies in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura
On Agression
Argued aggressive tendencies learned from friends, parents and tv.
Learning can occur with or w/out rewards.
Drift Theory
Delinqs drift in and out of crime.
Subterranean values=agression, excitement, desire for wealth
Differential Reinforcement
Burgess and Akers
Crim behav and attitudes are more likely to be learned when reinforced or rewarded by friends/family.
Echoes classical view bc calculation of potential rewards and potenial risks.
Can be learned from authority like police and teachers bc can teach reward and punishment
Containment Theory
Walter Reckless
Inner containments: + self concept, tolerance for frustration, ability to set realistic goals
Inner and outer containments necessary to keep inner and external pushes and pressures from making us deviant.

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