Glossary of Core Concepts in Pharmacology Ch 23
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- benign tumor of glandular tissue
- hair loss
- process by which certain chemicals attach to DNA & change its structure and function
- shortage of functional RBCs
- cancer of blood vessels
- neither life-threatening nor fatal
- biologic response modifiers
- natural substances that are able to enhance/stimulate the immune system
- malignant disease characterized by rapidly growing, invasive cells that spread to other regions of the body
eventually kills the host
- any physical, chemical, or biological factor that causes or promotes cancer
- a malignant tumor
- drug treatment of cancer
- folic acid
- water soluble vitamin that is part of a coenzyme essential to synthesis of nucleic acids
- malignant tumor of the brain
- hepatocellular carcinoma
- cancer of the liver
- Kaposi's sarcoma
- vascular cancer that first appears on the skin & then invades internal organs
frequently occurs in AIDS clients
- cancer of the blood characterized by overproduction of WBCs
- shortage of WBCs
- benign tumor of fat tissue
- small sacs of lipids designed to carry drugs inside them
- cancer of lymphatic tissue
- malignant melanoma
- type of skin cancer that metastasizes very quickly
- travel of cancer cells from their original site to a distant tissue
- nitrogen mustards
- class of chemicals that are alkylating agents
- same as tumor
an abnormal sweeling or mass
- genes responsible for the conversion of normal cells into cancer cells
- osteogenic sarcoma
- cancer of bone
- form of chemotherapy intended to alleviate symptoms rather than cure the disease
- building block of DNA & RNA
either adenine or guanine
- building block of DNA & RNA
either thymine or cytosine in DNA and cytosine & uracil in RNA
- raditation therapy
- delivery of high-dose radiation with the intent of killing tumor cells
- cancer of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, or cartilage
- antineoplastic drugs obtained from the Pacific Yew tree
- deficiency of platelets
- enzyme that assists in the repair of DNA damage
- abnormal swelling or mass
- tumor suppressor genes
- genes that inhibit the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells
- vinca alkaloids
- chemicals obtained from the periwinkle plant
- _____ are chemicals or factors that have been found to cause cancer or to be associated with a higher risk for acquiring the disease.
- Abnormal genes that promote cancer formation in clients are called _____.
- Drug therapy of cancer is sometimes called _____.
- A number of treatment strategies have been found to increase the effectiveness of anticancer drugs, including 1_____, 2_____, 3_____, and 4_____.
- 1) using multiple drugs
2) special dosing schedules
4) radiation therapy
- A novel delivery method in which drugs are enclosed in small sacs or vesicles of lipids is called _____.
- Bone marrow suppression is the most important adverse effect of a class of antineoplastic drugs called _____ _____.
- alkalating agents
- By blocking the synthesis of folic acid, a medication called _____ (_____) is able to inhibit replication in rapidly dividing cancer cells.
- methotrexate (Mexate)
- All antitumor antibiotics must be administered by the _____ or through direct installation into a body cavity using a catheter.
- Plant extracts that have been isolated to kill cancer cells include the 1_____ _____, 2_____, and 3_____ _____.
- 1) vinca alkaloids
3) topoisomerase inhibitors
4) Campothecus accuminata (shrub)
- A natural class of antineoplastics medications called 1_____ and 2_____ results in few of the cytoxic effects seen with other antitumor medication.
- 1) hormones
2) hormone antagonists
- _____ _____ _____ help to limit the severe immunosuppressive effects of other anticancer drugs by stimulating the body's immune system.
- Biologic response modifiers
- Antimetabolites act by:
a. changing the structure of DNA in cancer cells
b. disrupting critical cell pathways in cancer cells
c. preventing cell division
d. activating the body's immune system
- b. disrupting critical cell pathways in cancer cells
- Clients can reduce the probability of acquiring cancer by adopting which of the following changes to their lifestyle?
a. examining the skin for abnormal lesions or changes to moles
b. exercising regularly and keeping body weight within normal g
- d. all of the above
- Which of the following foods is not thought to exert protective effects against cancer?
a. cold water fish
b. fresh fruits and vegetables
c. olive oil
d. grains and cereals
- c. olive oil
- Which of the following statements regarding tumors is incorrect?
a. Carcinomas are the most common type of neoplasm.
b. Benign tumors are slow growing, do not metastasize, and rarely rquire drug treatment.
c. Malignant tumors grow rapidly
- d. The term neoplasm is often used interchangeable with carcinogen.
- Abnormal genes that promote cancer formation are called:
b. tumor suppressing genes
d. palliation genes
- a. oncogenes
- Which of the following is not a treatment approach to remove cancer?
b. radiation therapy
d. drug therapy
- c. diet
- Which of the following approaches would eliminate the maximum number of cancer cells with the least toxicity?
a. multiple drugs in lower doses from different antineoplastic classes
b. increasing the concentration of different antineoplastic dru
- a. multiple drugs in lower doses from different antineoplastic classes
- Which of the following is not an expected adverse effect of chmotherapy with antineoplastic agents?
- c. hypercholesterolemia
- Which of the following chemotherapeutic approaches changes the shape of DNA and prevents it from functioning normally?
a. cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
b. methotrexate (Mexate)
c. doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
d. vincristine (Oncovin)
- a. cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
- The primary drug treatment for AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma is:
a. mechloroethamine (Mustargen)
b. floxuridine (FUDR)
c. doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
d. teniposide (Vumon)
- c. doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
- One chemotherapeutic agent extraced from the Pacific yew plant is:
a. mercaptopurine (6-MP, Purinsthol)
b. paclitaxel (Taxol)
c. vinblastine sulfate (Velban)
d. flutamide (Eulexin)
- b. paclitaxel (Taxol)
- The most serious limiting adverse effect of vincristine (Oncovin) is:
a. flu-like syndrome
- c. neurotoxicity
- A drug of choice for treating breast cancer is:
a. carboplatin (Paraplatin)
b. pentostatin (Nipent)
c. epirubicin (Ellence)
d. tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex)
- d. tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex)
- Which anticancer drug is similar to the insecticide DDT?
a. interferon alfa 2 (Roferon-A, Intron A)
b. mitotane (Lysodren)
c. paclitaxel (Taxol)
d. irinotecan (Camptosar)
- b. mitotane (Lysodren)
- Which of the following drugs would normally be given for palliation of advanced cancer?
a. epirubicin (Ellence)
b. dacarbazine (DTIC-Dome)
c. ethinyl estradiol (Estinyl)
d. chlorambucil (Leukeran)
- c. ethinyl estradiol (Estinyl)
- Which of the following drugs would not be used for treatment of prostate cancer?
a. vinorelbine tartrate (Navelbine)
b. megestrol acetate (Megace)
c. bicalutamide (Casodex)
d. leuprolide acetate (Lupron)
- a. vinorelbine tartrate (Navelbine)
- Which of the following drugs would be used for palliative treatment of malignant melanoma?
a. teniposide (Vumon)
b. idarubicin (Idamycin)
c. dactinomycin (Actinomycin D, Cosmegan)
d. hydroxyurea (Hydrea)
- d. hydroxyurea (Hydrea)
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