Glossary of Core Concepts in Pharmacology Ch 23

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benign tumor of glandular tissue
hair loss
process by which certain chemicals attach to DNA & change its structure and function
shortage of functional RBCs
cancer of blood vessels
neither life-threatening nor fatal
biologic response modifiers
natural substances that are able to enhance/stimulate the immune system
malignant disease characterized by rapidly growing, invasive cells that spread to other regions of the body

eventually kills the host
any physical, chemical, or biological factor that causes or promotes cancer
a malignant tumor
drug treatment of cancer
folic acid
water soluble vitamin that is part of a coenzyme essential to synthesis of nucleic acids
malignant tumor of the brain
hepatocellular carcinoma
cancer of the liver
Kaposi's sarcoma
vascular cancer that first appears on the skin & then invades internal organs

frequently occurs in AIDS clients
cancer of the blood characterized by overproduction of WBCs
shortage of WBCs
benign tumor of fat tissue
small sacs of lipids designed to carry drugs inside them
cancer of lymphatic tissue
malignant melanoma
type of skin cancer that metastasizes very quickly
travel of cancer cells from their original site to a distant tissue
nitrogen mustards
class of chemicals that are alkylating agents
same as tumor

an abnormal sweeling or mass
genes responsible for the conversion of normal cells into cancer cells
osteogenic sarcoma
cancer of bone
form of chemotherapy intended to alleviate symptoms rather than cure the disease
building block of DNA & RNA

either adenine or guanine
building block of DNA & RNA

either thymine or cytosine in DNA and cytosine & uracil in RNA
raditation therapy
delivery of high-dose radiation with the intent of killing tumor cells
cancer of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, or cartilage
antineoplastic drugs obtained from the Pacific Yew tree
deficiency of platelets
enzyme that assists in the repair of DNA damage
abnormal swelling or mass
tumor suppressor genes
genes that inhibit the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells
vinca alkaloids
chemicals obtained from the periwinkle plant
_____ are chemicals or factors that have been found to cause cancer or to be associated with a higher risk for acquiring the disease.
Abnormal genes that promote cancer formation in clients are called _____.
Drug therapy of cancer is sometimes called _____.
A number of treatment strategies have been found to increase the effectiveness of anticancer drugs, including 1_____, 2_____, 3_____, and 4_____.
1) using multiple drugs

2) special dosing schedules

3) surgery

4) radiation therapy
A novel delivery method in which drugs are enclosed in small sacs or vesicles of lipids is called _____.
Bone marrow suppression is the most important adverse effect of a class of antineoplastic drugs called _____ _____.
alkalating agents
By blocking the synthesis of folic acid, a medication called _____ (_____) is able to inhibit replication in rapidly dividing cancer cells.
methotrexate (Mexate)
All antitumor antibiotics must be administered by the _____ or through direct installation into a body cavity using a catheter.
Plant extracts that have been isolated to kill cancer cells include the 1_____ _____, 2_____, and 3_____ _____.
1) vinca alkaloids

2) taxoids

3) topoisomerase inhibitors

4) Campothecus accuminata (shrub)
A natural class of antineoplastics medications called 1_____ and 2_____ results in few of the cytoxic effects seen with other antitumor medication.
1) hormones

2) hormone antagonists
_____ _____ _____ help to limit the severe immunosuppressive effects of other anticancer drugs by stimulating the body's immune system.
Biologic response modifiers
Antimetabolites act by:
a. changing the structure of DNA in cancer cells
b. disrupting critical cell pathways in cancer cells
c. preventing cell division
d. activating the body's immune system
b. disrupting critical cell pathways in cancer cells
Clients can reduce the probability of acquiring cancer by adopting which of the following changes to their lifestyle?
a. examining the skin for abnormal lesions or changes to moles
b. exercising regularly and keeping body weight within normal g
d. all of the above
Which of the following foods is not thought to exert protective effects against cancer?
a. cold water fish
b. fresh fruits and vegetables
c. olive oil
d. grains and cereals
c. olive oil
Which of the following statements regarding tumors is incorrect?
a. Carcinomas are the most common type of neoplasm.
b. Benign tumors are slow growing, do not metastasize, and rarely rquire drug treatment.
c. Malignant tumors grow rapidly
d. The term neoplasm is often used interchangeable with carcinogen.
Abnormal genes that promote cancer formation are called:
a. oncogenes
b. tumor suppressing genes
c. carcinogens
d. palliation genes
a. oncogenes
Which of the following is not a treatment approach to remove cancer?
a. surgery
b. radiation therapy
c. diet
d. drug therapy
c. diet
Which of the following approaches would eliminate the maximum number of cancer cells with the least toxicity?
a. multiple drugs in lower doses from different antineoplastic classes
b. increasing the concentration of different antineoplastic dru
a. multiple drugs in lower doses from different antineoplastic classes
Which of the following is not an expected adverse effect of chmotherapy with antineoplastic agents?
a. alopecia
b. nausea
c. hypercholesterolemia
d. leukopenia
c. hypercholesterolemia
Which of the following chemotherapeutic approaches changes the shape of DNA and prevents it from functioning normally?
a. cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
b. methotrexate (Mexate)
c. doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
d. vincristine (Oncovin)
a. cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
The primary drug treatment for AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma is:
a. mechloroethamine (Mustargen)
b. floxuridine (FUDR)
c. doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
d. teniposide (Vumon)
c. doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
One chemotherapeutic agent extraced from the Pacific yew plant is:
a. mercaptopurine (6-MP, Purinsthol)
b. paclitaxel (Taxol)
c. vinblastine sulfate (Velban)
d. flutamide (Eulexin)
b. paclitaxel (Taxol)
The most serious limiting adverse effect of vincristine (Oncovin) is:
a. flu-like syndrome
b. hepatotoxicity
c. neurotoxicity
d. immunosuppression
c. neurotoxicity
A drug of choice for treating breast cancer is:
a. carboplatin (Paraplatin)
b. pentostatin (Nipent)
c. epirubicin (Ellence)
d. tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex)
d. tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex)
Which anticancer drug is similar to the insecticide DDT?
a. interferon alfa 2 (Roferon-A, Intron A)
b. mitotane (Lysodren)
c. paclitaxel (Taxol)
d. irinotecan (Camptosar)
b. mitotane (Lysodren)
Which of the following drugs would normally be given for palliation of advanced cancer?
a. epirubicin (Ellence)
b. dacarbazine (DTIC-Dome)
c. ethinyl estradiol (Estinyl)
d. chlorambucil (Leukeran)
c. ethinyl estradiol (Estinyl)
Which of the following drugs would not be used for treatment of prostate cancer?
a. vinorelbine tartrate (Navelbine)
b. megestrol acetate (Megace)
c. bicalutamide (Casodex)
d. leuprolide acetate (Lupron)
a. vinorelbine tartrate (Navelbine)
Which of the following drugs would be used for palliative treatment of malignant melanoma?
a. teniposide (Vumon)
b. idarubicin (Idamycin)
c. dactinomycin (Actinomycin D, Cosmegan)
d. hydroxyurea (Hydrea)
d. hydroxyurea (Hydrea)

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