Glossary of Computer Science 110

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

The language, made up of binary coded instructions, that is used directly by the computer
Machine Language
A low-level programming language in which an mnemonic is used to represent each of the instructions for a particular computer
Assembly Language
A program that translates an assembly language program into machine code
A subprogram in C++
A program that translates a high-level language into machine code
A program written in a high-level programming language
Source Program
The machine language version of a source program
Object Program
The formal rules governing how valid instructions are written in a programming language
The set of rules that determines the meaning of instructions written in a programming language.
A language that is used to write the rules for another language.
A name that is used to refer to a function or data object.
A specific set of values, along with operations that can be applied to those values.
Data type
An identifier referring to a value that can be changed
An identifier referring to a value that cannot be changed.
Named constant
A value that appears in a program
An arrangement of identifiers, literals, and operators that can be evaluated
An operator with just one operand
Unary operator
An operator with two operands
Binary operator
Implicitly changing a value of one type into another
Type coercion
Explicitly changing a value of one type into another
Type casting
A computation involving both floating-point and integer values
Mixed type expression
The values that appear between parentheses in a function call
Argument list
A function that is called as a separate statement
Void function
Planning or scheduling the performance of a task or an event
A programmable device that can store, retireve and process data
A sequence of instructions to be performed by a computer
Computer program
The process of planning a sequence of steps for a computer to follow
Computer programming
A step-by-step procedure for solving a problem in a finite amount of time
A set of rules, symbols and special words sued to construct a computer program
Programming language
The written text and comments that make a program easier for other to understnad, used and modify
Any knowledge that can be communicated
Information in a form a computer can use
Internal data storage in a computer
Memory unit
The part of the computer that executes the instructions(program_ stored in memory; made up of the arithmetic/logic unit and the control unit
Central procccessing unit (CPU)
The component of the central processing unit that performs arithmetic and logical operations
Arithmetic/Logical unit (ALU)
The component of the central processing unit that controls the actions of the other components so that instructions(the program) are executed in the correct sequence
Control unit
The parts of the computer that accept data to be processed(input) and present the results of that processing(output)
Input/Output devices (I/O)
An input, output, or auxilary storage device attached to a computer
Peripheral device
A device that stores data in encoded form outside the computer's main memory
Auxiliary storage device
The physical components of a computer
Computer programs; the set of all programs available on a computer
The unauthorized copying of software for either personal use or use by others
Software piracy
A computer program that replicates itstlf, oftevn with the goal of spreading to other ocmputers without authorization, and possilby with the intent of doing harm
The application of traditional engineering methodologies and techniques to the development of software
Software engineering
A word that has special meaning in C++; it cannot be used as a programmer-defined identifier
Reserved word
A statement that associates an identifier with a data object, a function or a data type so that the programmer can refer to that item by name
A statment that stores the value of an expression into a variable
Assignment statement
To compute a new value by performing a specified set of operations on given values
A named area in secondary storage that is used to hold a collection of data; the collection of data itself
The mechanism that transfers contorl to a function
Function call
A function that returns a single value to its caller and is invoked from within an expression
Value-returning function
A technique for developing software in which the solution is expressed in terms of objects - self-containted entities composed of data and operations on that data
Object-oriented design
A technique for developing software in which the problem is divided into more easily handled subprograms, the solutions of which creat a solution to the overall program
Functional decomposition
A step for which the implemetation details are fully specified
Concrete step
A step for which some implementation details remain unspecified
Abstract step
A self-containted collection of steps that solves a problem or subproblem; can contain both concrete and abstract steps
A property of a module that performs exactly the smae operation as the abstract step it defines. A pair of modules are also functionally equivilant to each other when they perform exaclty the same operation
Functional equivalence
A property of a module in which all concrete steps are directed toward solving just one problem, and any significant subproblems are written as abstract steps
Functional cohesion
Program code containing meaningful identifiers as well as judiciously used clafiying comments
Self-documenting code
The order in which the computer executes statments in a program
Flow of control
A statement used to alter the normally sequential flow of control
Control structure
Evalutaion of a logical expression in left-to-right order with evalutation stopping as soon as the final truth value cna be determined
Short-circuit evalutaion
The act of using a C++ stream object in a logical expression as if it were a Boolean variable; the result is true if the last I/O operation on that stream suceeded, and false otherwise
Testing the state of a stream
An assertion that must be true before a module begins executing
An assertion that should be true after a module has executed
A document that specifies how a program is to be tested
Test plan
Using the test cases specified in a test plan to verify that a program outputs the predicted results
Test plan implementation
A control structure that causes a statement or group of statements to be executed repeatedly
The point at which the flow of control reaches the first statement inside a loop
Loop entry
An individual pass through, or repetition of, the body of a loop
The point at which teh While expression is evaluated and the decision is made either to begin a new iteration or skip to the statment imeediatly following the loop
Loop test
The point at which the repitition of the loop body ends and control passes to the first statment folloing the loop
Loop exit
The condition that causes a loop to be exited
Termination condition
A loop that executes a specified number of times
Count-controlled loop
A loop that terminates when something happens inside teh loop body to signal that the loop should be exited
Event-controlled loop
A counter variable that is incremented with each iteration of a loop
Iteration counter
A variable tha tis incremented each time a particular event occurs
Event counter
A measure of the effort expended by the computer in performing a computation, relative to the size of the computation
A statement that transters cocntrol to a void function. In C++, this statment is the name of the function, followed by a list of arguments
Funtion call (to a void function)
A function declaration without the body of the function
Function prototype
A function declaration that includes the body of the function
Function definition
A parameter that receives a copy of the value of the corresponding argument
Value parameter
A parameter that recieves the location (memory address) of the caller's argument
Reference parameter
A connecting link at a shared bondary that permeits independent systmes to meet and act on or communitacte with each other. Also, the formal descriptions of the purpose of a subprogram and the mechanism for communicating with it
Hiding a module implementation in a separate block with a formally specified interface
The flow of information from the calling code to a function and from the function back to the calling code
Data flow
The region of program code where it is legal to reference (use) an identifier
The precedence that a local identifier in a function has over a global identifier with the same name in any references that the funcction makes to that identifier, also called name hiding
Name precedence
The rules that determine where in the proram an identifier may be accessed, given the point hwere that identifier is declared
Scope rules
With repsect to a given block, any identifier declared outside that block
Nonlocal identifier
The period of time during program execution when an identifier has memroy allocated to it
A variable for which memory is allocated and deallocated when control enters and exites the block in which it is declared
Automatic varibable
A variable for which memory remians allocated throughout the execution of the entire program
Static variable
Any effect of one funciton on another that is not a part of the explicitly defined interface between them
Side effect
The data type of the reslut value returned by a function
Function value type
The seperation of the logical properties of an action from its implementation
Control abstraction
The principle that a module should perform exactly one abstract action
Functional cohesion
A measure of the quantity of data passing through a module's interface
Communication complexity
A dummy function that assists in testing part of a program. It has the same name and interface as a function that actually would be called by the part of the program being tested, but it is usually much simpler
A simple main function that is used to call a function being tested. The use of it permits the direct control of teh testing process
The expression whose value determines which switch label is selected. It cannot be a floating-oint or string expression
Switch expression
A data type in which each value is atomic (indivisible)
Simple (atomic) data type
The interval within which values of a numeric type must fall, specified in terms of the largest and smallest allowed values
Range of values
The printable (character) form of a data value
External representation
The form in which a data value is stored inside the memory unit
Internal representation
The maximum number of significatn digits
Those digits from teh first nonzero digit on teh left to the last nonzero digit on the right (plus any 0 digis that are exact)
Significant digits
Arithmetic error that ocurs when the precision of the true result of an arithmetic operation is greater than the precision of the machine
Representattional error
A user-defined data type whose domain is an ordered set of literal values expressed as identifiers
Enumeration type
One of the values in the domain of an enumeration type
A user-defined type whose declaration includes a type idntifier tha tgives a name to the type
Named type
A type that does not have an associated type identifier
Anonymous type
A structured collection of components, all of the same type, that is given a single name. Each component (element) is accessed by an index that indicates the component's position within the collection
One-dimensional array
An index value that, in C++, is either less than 0 or greater than the array size minus 1
Out-of-bounds array index
The memory address of the first element of an array
Base address

Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards