Glossary of Comparative Government and Politics
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- political idealology that stresses the elimination of the state and private property as a way to achieve both freedom and equality for all
Anarchists have often been portrayed as dangerous and violent, due mainly to a number of high-profile violent acts, including riots, assassinations, insurrections, and terrorism by some anarchists, as well as persistently negative media portrayal.
(In general, anarchists advocate direct action and oppose voting in elections)
- the struggle of any group for power that will give a person or people the ability to make decisions for the larger group
Without authority, politics simply is not feasible. The most visible and widely accepted example of politics is the workings of the governmental institutions.
- the fundamental rules and norms of politics, embodying long term goals regarding individual freedom and collective equality, where power should reside, and the use of that power
What we are witnessing is not simply a change in policies but the emergence of a new regime.
- political organization
- organization or group that is concerned with, or involved in the political process. Political organizations can include everything from special interest groups who lobby politicians for change, to think tanks that propose policy alternatives, to political parties who run candidates for elections, to terrorist groups that use violence to achieve political goals. In a broader sense, a political organization can also be viewed as a political system, as long as it includes the entire system and body of government.
- pride in one's people and the belief that they have a unique political destiny
After 911, an emense sense of nationalism swept the United States with the raising of flags all over the country.
- traditional legitimacy
- legitimacy that accepts aspects of politics because they have been institutionalized over a long period of time
Nigeria is unable to gain a sense of traditional legitimacy because its politics wavers.
- charismatic legitimacy
- legitimacy built on the force of ideas embodied by and individual leader
Hitler built charismatic legitimacy through his innate leadership skills.
- a system in which significant state powers, such as taxation, law-making, and security, are devolved to regional or local bodies
Not all sub-national organizations are rooted in federalism: In the US there is one federal government, 50 unitary state governments, and a further 90,000 self-governing units (eg: municipalities, counties, school districts).
- It is above all a network of administrative councils whose members or delegates are elected from popular face-to-face democratic assemblies, in the various villages, towns, and even neighborhoods of large cities. The members of these confederal councils are strictly mandated, recallable, and responsible to the assemblies that choose them for the purpose of coordinating and administering the policies formulated by the assemblies themselves. Their function is thus a purely administrative and practical one, not a policy making one like the function of representatives in republican systems of government.
Confederalism is thus a way of perpetuating the interdependence that should exist among communities and regions - indeed, it is a way of democratizing that interdependence without surrendering the principle of local control.
- a state or country that is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature. The political power of government in such states may well be transferred to lower levels, to regionally or locally elected assemblies, governors and mayors ("devolved government"), but the central government retains the principal right to recall such delegated power.
The United Kingdom is a unitary state with a series of parliament-created devolved assemblies, for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, all of which were created in between 1998 and 1999. The Republic of Ireland is a unitary state without subnational governments.
- assigning some quality or character to a person or thing
88 percent of the hits did in fact involve ascriptions of political labels.
- complex human organization, a collection of people bound by shares institutions that define how human relations should be conducted
American society is attempting to be described through the mcdonald's, starbucks, and razor cell phone game peices of monopoly.
- ethnic identity
- specific attributes and soceital institutions that make one group of people culturally different from others
The polish part of Chicago has created for itself a true ethnic identity with the ornate cathedrals that line the streets.
- pride in one's state
Those who willingly enlist in the United States armed forces feel a sense of patriotism and wish to support his or her country.
- ethnic conflict
top down, bottom up
- a conflict in which different ethnic groups struggle to acheive certain political or economic goals at each other's expense
Ethnic conflict occurs as different Middle Eastern groups battle for the holy lands and the Gaza strip.
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