Glossary of Column 3 World History Terms 10H
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- Two Siciles
- Kingdom in South Italy. Giussepe Garibaldi wanted to create an Italian Republic so accpeted help from Cavour and by 1860 had a 1,000 red shirted volunteers. he won control of this kingdom in 1860
- Late 1700s, British making huge profits by trading this plant for chinese tea. Many Chinese soon addicted and silver flowed out, disrupting the economy. Chinese gov. outlawed it and urged the British to stop but they refused. British and Chinese fight, the british win.
- Prince Henry/Henry the Navigator
- Portugese, 1394-1460.
Hope to expand Christianity and find the source of African gold. set out ships that worked their way south to explore the western african coast.
- Miguel de Cervantes
- Wrote "Don Quixote". Mocks romantic notions of medieval chivalry and the trad. of Spain's feudal past. `
- James Watt
- Scottish Engineer. 1769 improved Thomas Newcomen's steam engine. His engine was the key power source of the Industrial Revolution
- Joseph II
- Hapsburg Emperor, heir of Maria Theresa. Student of the Enlightenment thinkers. Travled in disguise among subjects to find out prob. also called the "Peasant Emperor". Abolished serfdom, ended censorship, tried to bring the Catholic Church under his control.
- James II
- Brother of Charles II, flaunted Catholic faith. Suspened laws at will, appointed Catholics to high office. English protestants afraid he would restore the Roman Catholic Church. 1688 Mary and William of Orange come to take over.
- Edict of Nantes
- issued by Henry IV in 1598. Granted Huguenots religious toleration and let them fortify their own towns and cities.
- Alexander II
- took throne 1855 during the Crimean war. 1861 Freed the Serfs. Set up system of local gov. called the zemstovs. Introduced Trial by Jury, eased censorship, reformed military and encouraged industry growth.
- people as a whole own and operate farms, factories, railways, etc. Grew out of Enlightenment faith in basic goodness of people
- Jean-Jaques Rousseau
- Enlightenment thinker. Belived people in natural state are good and are corrupted by society. 1762 wrote the Social Contract where control is necessary but minimal, can only be imposed by a freely elected gov. Encouraged individualism
- Albrecht Durer
- "German Leonardo" Did engravings portraying religious upheaval and help spread Italian Renaissance in Germany.
- Bloody Sunday
- Czar Nicholas II fled a protest march on January 22, 1905. As people approached, soliders shot them, hundreds died. Marked the lost of faith from the people in the czar.
- goal of society is to bring about greatest hapiness for the greatest # of people
- Artistic Mvt. who's aim was to represent the world as it is.
- Yalta Confrence
- Big 3 Powers. Roosevelt sought Soviet military help against Japan
- Treaty of Tordesillas
- 1494 Portugal claimed Brazil and divided up their land to their nobles as long as they shared their profits w/ the crown.
- Thirty Years' War
- 1648 Peace of Westphalia France wins, Hapsburgs loose. German divided into 360 separate states.
- Treaty of Paris
- 1763 Ended French vs. British War. Ensured British dominance in North America by recieving Canada and land east of the Mississippi River. France got sugar islands in the Caribbean.
- Catholic Reformation
- Headed by Pope Paul III, 1530-1540. Council of Trent: started 1545, reaffirmed Catholic views. Started to end corruption in the Church. Better edu. clergy.
The Inquisition: Made an index of forbidden books. Result: by 1600 Rome was very devout. Slowed Protestant tide. Catholic south, Protestant north.
- Crimean War
- Russia tried to sieze Ottoman lands along w/ Danube. Britain and France allied w/ the Turks. Russia lost and it revealed how un-efficent it was.
- Toussaint L'Ouverture
- Self Edu. former slave. Leader of Haiti's revolt 1791-1798. 1798 slaves were freed. 1802 Napoleon tries to recapture Haiti, but L'Ouverture rallies up the people again and wins. Captured and taken to France where he dies.
- War of Austrian Sucession
- Marie Theresa tired to recapture Silesia and run Frederick II of Prussia out, but unable to. Did get the support of her people.
- Tennis Court Oath
- Delegates of the 3rd estate claiming to rep. the people of France declared themselves the national assembly and invited other delegates to help write a constitution. Made an oath never to seperate and meet wherever until a good constitution was made.
- Maxmilien Robespierre
- Leader of the Committee of Public Safety and the Reign of Terror 1793-1794. Promoted Religious toleration, idea of the general will as the source of all law. Thought the new republic could only be made through terror. July 28, 1794 Executed
- Klemens von Metternich
- Prince of Austria, represented Austria at the Congress of Vienna. Wanted status quo of 1792. Wanted a monarchy.
- Franco-Prussian War
- 1870. Napoleon III wanted to fight to mask his problems. Bismarck released the "Ems Dispatch" a telegram reporting a meeting between King William and a French Ambassador. Made it look like William insulted France. Napoleon III declared war and is captured. Prussians win w/ the better army.
- Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
- Spanish adventurer. 1513 Hacked a passage through the tropical forests of Panama w/ the help of Native Americans.
- instrument used by Europeans, made by the ancient Greeks and perfected by the Arabs. Determines latitude at sea.
- born 551 B.C Said harmony would exist when people realized their place in society. Korea and China both influenced by him. Affected the rights of Women, they were restricted. 5 important relationships
- British East India Co.
- 1800s. Trading Co. British. Given power by the gov. to become involved in India's political and military affairs. Sponsored opium trade from North India to China.
- The Dreyfus Affair
- 1894. Alfred Dreyfus was accused of spying for the Germans. At the trail was unable to see any evidence. Zola said that it was because he was Jewish. Dreyfusards ideal was justice/equality. Start the rise of anti-semitism.
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