Glossary of Cognitive Psychology language

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Module Fourteen starts off by describing a 14-month-old boy's use of _____ to illustrate the complexity of language.
single word sentences
The case of Gordon Parks illustrates:
The areas of thinking and language are important topics to study in the ________ approach.
Professor Synder studies how beliefs are changed when information that contradicts the belief is presented. Professor Synder uses the:
cognitive approach
The term ________ refers to mental processes that we use to be creative, to form concepts, and to problem solve
When you are asked to indicate what Sigmund Freud, Albert Bandura, Abraham Maslow, and Lewis Terman all have in common, you're really being asked to form a(n):
A problem of the definition theory of concept formation is that we would have to list all the _______ that do not fit a particular definition of an object
When someone says "bear," you think of a grizzly rather than a koala or a polar bear. This is probably because the grizzly bear
is a prototype for most North American bears
Little 15-month-old Jeanie has already developed several concepts. Researchers have found that Jeanie has formed concepts as a result of _______ with objects and growing ability to use__________
experience; language
Once we have formed the concept for a car and encounter the car on another occasion, we:
do not have to relearn what a car is or what it does
Which job offer should I take? I need to select a city that has good health care, inexpensive housing, and a low crime rate. These are my reasons for selecting a city." This person is in what state of problem solving?
operations state
One difference research has revealed between expert and novice computer programmers is that the expert starts with the ______ and works down to specific solutions; the novice starts with ______
big picture; specifics
Rules of thumb or cognitive strategies are known as:
Algorithm is to ________ as heuristic is to _______.
rule; mental shortcut
Tom and Allison want to build a play fort. Unfortunately, there is no available lumber to build with. The two think about their problem. Suddenly Tom says, "Let's use the large box that the new refrigerator came in." Allison who appears confuse
insight; functional fixedness
One reason why businesses like to hire people with experience is that these individuals are more likely to draw ______ to solve problems
The kids have messed up the living room. There are toys and paper all over the floor. The father tells the kids to clean up. When realizing the large mess they made, the kids start to complain. Then the father suggests to break down the task into smaller
If you study creativity using the psychometric approach, you focus on:
convergent and divergent thinking
On the first day of a business class, the professor talked about how there might be more than one way to create a business organization. This illustrates what kind of thinking?
divergent thinking
A method of study that examines a creative person in great depth is called
case study
The cognitive approach to creativity focuses on the:
tools of creative thinking like mental imagery
Name a description regarding the traits of creative people?
change mental directions; not afraid to take risks; motivated by challenge of solving problems
You are watching a game show that gives the answer and contestants give the question. One of the items was, "An arbitrary pairing between a sound and a meaning." Not one of the contestants knew the answer, but you do! What
"What is a word"
In the word "sock", the sound of the "s" is a(n) _________, whereas the use of the "s" to make the word plural is a(n) _____________.
phoneme; morpheme
"Once upon a time, a big spider scared a little girl who was eating some cottage cheese. It was very ugly." You know that the "it" refers to the big spider and not to the cottage cheese. Why?
As you look at your newborn daughter, you think of the innate abilities that she possesses. You think about how she will learn the general rules of grammar relatively easy. What is the term used to describe the relative ease of learning grammar?
innate program
The underlying meaning of a sentence is its:
deep structure
The ideas of surface structure, deep structure, and transformational rules are part of
Chomsky's theory of language
At what age do children become sensitized to sounds that make up their native language
by about 6 months
"Parentese," which includes speaking in a higher voice and stretching out each word, usually emerges from parents in response to their child's use of:
single words
By the age of two, children have vocabularies of more than
50 words
When a child says, "I bringed my doll," the child is demonstrating:
Feedback, reinforcement, observation, and imitation are examples of _________ related to language acquisition
environmental factors
When you use and apply knowledge to achieve goals, you are:
Your friends used to tease you for wearing thick glasses. They thought that people who wear thick glasses were geeks. They thought, "Hey, he wears thick glasses, so he must be a geek." You have suffered because of your friends':
deductive reasoning
Why does reasoning fail? It has been suggested that our brains are prewired for _________ challenges rather than _________ reasoning.
practical; abstract
Studies have found that in the dyslexic brain, the ________ appears to be maldeveloped
left thalamus
Males and females use language differently. Males use language to _________ and females use it to __________.
solve problems; share concerns
Language uses a set of _______ symbols.
In addition to sign language, chimpanzees have been taught to communicate with humans by using:
geometric shapes
During research for a paper on Kanzi, you found that he was taught using:
a keyboard with symbols that stand for words
You subscribe to a journal called Journal of Human Information Processing. The journal is most likely to take the _______ approach.
A mental image that is based on the average characteristics of an object is called a(n):
The three states of initial, operations, and goal are involved in _________.
problem solving
Heuristics are problem-solving techniques that
provide us with shortcuts to solve problems
Professor Deurson is attempting to program a computer to imitate the way humans think and reason. She is an expert in:
artificial intelligence
Stan does not realize that his stapler can be used as a paper weight. This is an example of:
functional fixedness
Most people use ______ to solve the candle problem described in the textbook.
an analogy
A combination of flexibility in thinking and reorganization in understanding to produce innovative ideas is important in:
creative thinking
Frank claims that when he is confronted with a problem, he likes to come up with one correct solution. Frank practices:
convergent thinking
In your philosophy class one day, the professor asks, "What is the best tasting food?" You think to yourself that the answer depends on the person. You suddenly realize that the question requires:
divergent thinking
What type of correlation do we find between IQ and creativity?
Which word describes creative people with regard to their abilities?
Based upon data presented in your textbook, which type of creative person is most likely to suffer from psychopathology?
The set of rules that are used to regulate how we combine words in phrases and sentences is called:
________ specifies how we make the meaningful sounds that are used by a particular language
The rules that allow us to combine words to make meaningful phrases and sentences is termed:
Which individual is most associated with explaining how we understand language
You are talking to a stranger. He says something that is not clear, but you understand him anyway. You are able to determine the underlying meaning of his speech. You have determined the _______ of his comments.
deep structure
What is one criticism of Chomsky's theory of language?
it downplays the importance of environmental influences
In deaf children who are only exposed to sign language, babbling is
Adults speaking _________speak in a slower than normal voice
_______speech is characterized by omission of articles, prepositions and parts of verbs
An incident of overgeneralization represents:
understanding of the basic rules of grammar
That parents smile and praise a child's new words is support for the belief thatlanguage skills are learned________
The two types of reasoning discussed in your textbook are:
inductive and deductive reasoning
When you use past experiences to reason from the general to the particular, you use:
deductive reasoning
The notion that language determines the way people think and perceive the world is characteristic of:
theory of linguistic relativity
Research on bilingual people indicates that:
language influences thinking
Bruce has problems hearing the difference between "ba, da, and pa." An outcome described in the textbook of Bruce's problems might be:
difficulties hearing differences between words with those sounds
Paul uses language to _________, whereas Paula uses it to _________.
maintain his independence; develop feelings of intimacy
Koko the gorilla has a vocabulary of about _____signs and Washoe has learned about ____ signs.
800; 160
When we use rules to form and manipulate symbols in order to communicate, we are using:
According to the definition theory of concept formation, we list all of the essential properties that define an object, event, or characteristic. When we encounter an event and need to conceptualize it, we proceed to find the concept that fits all of the
essential properties of that event
An average bird has feathers, bill, and wings. This is consistent with the:
prototype theory
An advantage of the prototype theory is that it:
allows for quick recognition
Research has found that the processes of forming prototypes and matching things to prototypes:
go on at an unconscious level
Searching for some rule, plan, or strategy that leads to achieving a goal is called:
problem solving
Rules which will lead to a solution if followed correctly are called:
Travis has developed shortcuts to solving algebraic equations. These shortcuts allow Travis to identify a limited number of calculations and examine them in great depth. Travis is utilizing:
"A toothpick is a toothpick. It can't be used for anything except to pick your teeth." This person is experiencing
functional fixedness
What's the problem solving strategy that breaks down the overall problem into separate parts?
forming subgoals
A serious problem with too many college courses is that they place all the emphasis on ________ thinking.
For her research paper on creativity, Shyla has decided to study her cousin, the creator of a famous computer program. What approach to the measurement of creativity is Shyla pursuing?
case study approach
What term is given to an autistic person who shows some incredible memory, music, or drawing talent?
If you were to examine the personalities of creative people, you would find them to:
be risk takers
Writers are most likely to suffer from what types of psychopathology?
alcoholism and depression
From most particular to most general in the rules of language, the correct order is:
phoneme, morpheme, syntax or grammar, semantics
When we correctly combine phonemes into meaningful combinations of sounds and words, we are using:
The phrase "the red house" in Spanish would be "la casa roja" which means, literally, "the house red." This example illustrates that Spanish and English differ in rules of:
What two principles helps us to understand language according to Chomsky?
mental grammar and innate program
How does the child learn the complex rules of grammar?
interaction between the child's experience and the innate program
According to Chomsky, the difference between surface structure and deep structure has to do with:
wording and meaning
Children, regardless of culture or language, do not differ in regard to ______ of stages in language acquisition
The single word stage of language acquisition begins at:
one year of age
The age at which children typically begin using two-word combinations is:
2 years
A prototype for a car would include:
the average characteristics for a car
Definition theory is ______ as prototype theory is to _______.
essential characteristics; average characteristics
One function of concepts is that they allow us to:
group things into categories and then effectively organize them in memory
A prototype for a car would include
the average characteristics of all cars
"Which job offer should I take? Do I go to New York, Cincinnati, Minneapolis, Chicago, or Dallas? I need to collect some information about each city with regard to health care, recreation, crime, and housing." This person is in what state of pr
initial state
You're watching your four-year-old niece trying to solve some problem she has encountered in an art project. At this point, she tries a number of different techniques and methods to solve the problem. Your niece is in the:
operations state
The computer named "Deep Blue" that recently beat chess master Gary Kasparov used
When your friend remarks pessimistically that crime is increasing ("Did you see that gruesome murder on the news last night?"), you recognize the operation of the:
availability heuristic
Grandma Grace is terrified of flying in an airplane. On her first flight, she kept talking about crashing. Grandma said that the same thing that happened to those 150 victims of that airplane crash was going to happen to her. She demands that next time,
the availibility heuristic
If you were not able to solve the nine-dot problem, it probably was because of:
functional fixedness
A person who solves problems by finding a similarity between a new situation and an old situation is utilizing:
an analogy
"There is only one right answer to this exercise," the professor says as the class is reviewing a problem. What type of thinking is the professor describing
convergent thinking
If we give a very creative person a test of divergent thinking, what would we probably find out?
she does not necessarily score high on the test
You are studying Albert Einstein and learn that he was very good at thinking in visual-spatial terms. You reason that his creativity was due to this ability. The approach you are taking in studying creativity is the _______
Creative people are driven by:
intrinsic motivation
A form of communication that has complex rules that are used to make symbols is called:
The most basic speech sounds of a given language are called:
Joyce and Phil are having an argument. The argument is over the semantics of Joyce calling Phil a "clown." Semantics is involved with:
the meaning of words
Chomsky argues that an innate ________ allows us to create an endless number of sentences
mental grammar
Two sentences may have the same meaning, but the actual wording of the sentences may differ. This difference is referred to as:
surface structure
According to Chomsky, transformational rules allow us to:
convert surface structures into deep structures and back into surface structures
At about six months of age, babies begin to verbalize one-syllable sounds called:
A child's language development is partly dependent on:
how responsive the parent or caretaker is
When a child says, "Me go bye-bye" the child is demonstrating:
telegraphic speech
You are visiting a town that you have never been in before. You are hungry and want to eat at some restaurant. You have heard that truck stops have good food. So you find a truck stop in this town and reason that it has good food. This illustrates ______
deductive reasoning
Poor Eugene. The girl he was going out with said she hates him, hasn't called him in weeks, gave back the gifts, and has been going out with other guys. Eugene finally figures it out. She doesn't like him anymore. Eugene has finally engaged in _________.
inductive reasoning
Josh is a plumber and Phil knows nothing about plumbing. According to the theory of ______ Josh and Phil would think and perceive the tools that plumbers use differently
linguistic relativity
When Americans view objects, they tend to analyze each object
What term refers to the ability to use sounds, smells, or gestures to exchange communication?
Kanzi, a bonobo, has indicated a knowledge of word order. Psychologists estimate that his comprehension and use of abstract symbols is equivalent to that of a:
2 year old

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