Glossary of Cognitive Psychology Quiz 2

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a severe deficit in the ability to perceive sensory information
based on the receipt of sensory information in three diemnsions from both eyes
binocular depth cues
bottom-up theories
data driven (i.e. stimulus driven) theories
the perceiver constructs a perception of a stimulus; they use sensory information as the foundation for the structure but also uses other sources of information to build the perception
constructive perception
the influences of the surrounding environment on perception
context effects
the distance from a surface, usually using your own body as a reference surface when speaking in terms of depth perception
belief that the array of information in our sensory receptors including the sensory context is all we need to perceive anything
direct perception theory
what stands out from versus what recedes into the background
based on the notion that the whole differs from the sum of its individual parts
gestalt approach to form perception
tendency to perceive any given visual array in a way that most simply organizes the disparate elements into a stable and coherent form
law of Pragnanz
can be represented in just two dimensions and observed with just one eye
monocular depth cues
the individual stores a representation of the object, independent of its appearance to the viewer
object-centered representation
the set of processes by which we recognize, organize, and make sense of the sensations we receive from environmental stimuli
occurs when our perception of an object remainds the same even when our proximal sensation of the distal object changes
perceptual constancy
a sort of average of a class of rrelated objects of pattersn, which integrates all of the most typical (most frequently observed) features of the class
belief that we quickly recognize objects by observing the edges of objects and then decomposing the objects into geons
recognition-by-components (RBC) theory
highly detailed models for patterns we potentially might recognize
driven by high-level cognitive processes, existing knowledge, and prior expectations
top-down theories
an individual stores the way the objects looks to him or her
viewer centered representation
a disease of older adults that causes dementia as well as progressive memory loss
Alzheimer's disease
severe loss of explicit memory
the inability to remember vents that occur after a traumatic event
anterograde amnesia
a limited-capacity system that is capable of binding info from the subsidiary systems and from long-term emmory into a unitary episodic representation
episodic buffer
stores personally experienced events or episodes
episodic memory
when participants engange in conscious recollection
explicit memory
a process of producing retrieval of memories that would have seem to have been forgotten
concepts that are not themselves directly measurable or observable but that serve as mental models fror understanding how a psychological phenomenon works
hypothetical constructs
a discrete visual sensory register that holds information for very short periods of time
iconic store
when we recollect something but are not consciously aware that we are trying to do so
implicit memory
the inability to recall events that happened when we were very young
infantile amnesia
postulates that memory does not comprise three or even any specific number of separate stores but rather varies along a continuous dimension in terms of depth encoding
levels-of-processing framework
very large capacity, capable of storing info for very long periods, perhaps even indefinitely
long-term store
the means by which we retain and draw on our past experiences to use this information in the present
someone who demonstrates extraordinarily keen memory ability, usually based on the use of special techniques for memory enhancement
briefly holds inner speech for verbal comprehension and for acoustic rehearsal
phonological loop
a node that activates a connected node; this activation is knows as the priming affect
the facilitation in one's ability to utilize missing information; occurs when recognition of certain stimuli is affected by prior presentation of the same or similar stimuli
the resulting ativation of the node
priming effect
to produce a fact, word or other item from memory
to seelect or otherwise identify an item as being one that you learned previously
occurs when individuals lose their purposeful memory for eevents prior to whatever trauma induces memory loss
retrograde amnesia
stores general world knowledge
semantic memory
a web of interconnected elements of meaning
semantic network
capable of storing relatively limited amounts of information for very brief periods
sensory store
capable of storing information for somewhat longer periods but also of relatively limited capacity
short-term store
briefly holds some visual images
visuospatial sketchpad
holds only the most recently activated portion of long-term memory, and it moves these activated elements into and out of brief, temporary memory storage
working memory

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