Glossary of Cognitive Psych Vocab 3

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the degree to which we can gain access to the available information
autobiographical memory
refers to memory of an individual's history
the presence of information stored in long-term memory
the process of integrating new information into stored information
prior experience affects how we recall things and what we actually recall from memory
occurs when simply the passage of time causes an individual to forget
decay theory
asserts that information is forgotten because of the gradual disappearance,rather than displacement, of the memory trace.
distributed practice
learning in which various sessions are spaced over time
refers to how you transform a physical, sensory input into a kind of representation that can be placed into memory
encoding specificity
what is recalled depends on what is encoded
flashbulb memory
a memory of an event so powerful that he person remembers the event as vividly as if it were indelibly preserved on film
occurs when competing information causes an individual to forget something
interference theory
refers to theview that forgetting occurs because recall of certain words interferes with recall of other words
massed practice
learning in which session are crammed together in a very short space of time
our understanding and control of our cognition; our ability to think about and control our own processes of thought and ways of enhancing our thinking.
strategies that involve reflecting on our own memory processes with a view to improving our memory
mnemonic devices
specific techniques to help you memorize lists of words
primary effect
refers to superior recall of words at and near the beginning of a list
proactive interference
occurs when the interfering material occurs before, rather than after, learning of the to-be-remembered material
recency effect
refers to superior recall of words at and near the end of a list
involving the use of various strategies (i.e. searching for cues, drawing inferences) for retrieving the orginial memory traces of our experiences and then rebuilding the original experiences as a basis for retrieval.
the repeated recitation of an item
refers to how you gain access to information stored in memory
retroactive interference
caused by activity occurring after we learn something but before we are asked to recall that thing; also called retroactive inhibition
refers to how you retain encoded information in memory
analogue codes
a form of knowledge representation that preserves the main perceptual features of whatever is being represented forthe physical stimuli we observe in our environment
cognitive maps
internal representations of our physical environment, particularly centering on spatial relationships.
declarative knowledge
knowledge of facts that can be stated
dual-code theory
belief suggesting that knowledge is represented both in images and in symbols
functional-equivalence hypothesis
belief that although visual imagery is not identical to visual perception, it is functionally equivalent to it
the mental representation of things that are not currently being sensed by the sense organs
knowledge representation
the form of what you know in your mind about things, ideas, events, and so on that exist outside of your mind
mental models
knowledge structures that individuals construct to understand and explain their experiences; an internal representation of information that corresponds analogously with whatever is being represented
mental rotation
involves rotationally transforming an object's visual mental image
procedural knowledge
knowledge of procedures that can be implemented
propositional theory
belief suggesting that knowledge is represented only in underlying propositions, not in the form of images or of words and other symbols
symbolic representation
meaning that the relationship between the word and what it represents is simply arbitrary.

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