Glossary of Clinical psychology cont.
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- Definition of anatomy
- study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts.
- Definition of physiology
- study of the functions of living organisms and their parts
- Definition of homeostasis
- constancy of internal balance of body
- Basic facts about body functions
- 1. survival is most important
a. depends on restoration of homeostasis
b. never ceasing activities
c. all functions are cell functions
d. body functions are related to age
- Planes of body
- 1. superior & inferior: top of head & bottom of body
2. posterior & anterior: front and back or front coronal
3. transverse: top and bottom - body cut in half
4. midsaggital: left and right cut
5. medial: waist & up
6. lateral: below waist
- The smaller units of the body are:
- 1. cells
- Two major cavities are:
- 1. ventral: thoracic - heart & lungs
2. dorsal: brain & spinal
- what are organ systems composed of:
- two or more tissues types that together form one or more common functions. skin,stomach, eye & heart examples.
- Integumentary system consists of:
- skin,hair,nails,& sweat glands, subcutaneous tissue
protection, regulation of body temp, prevents water loss, produces vitamin D precursors,barrier to pathogens and chemicals
- bones, ligaments
supports body, protects internal organs, framework for muscles
- muscles, tendons
moves skeleton, produces heat
- brain, nerves, eyes, ears
interprets sensory info, regulates body functions such as movement by means of electro-chemical impulses
- thyroid gland, pituitary gland, adrenal
regulates body functions by means of hormones, regulates metabolism, reproduction
- circulatory or cardio
transports oxygen and carbon dioxide between air and blood, nutrients, waste, immune response
- spleen,lymph nodes
returns tissue fluid to blood,destroys pathogens that enter body, combats disease
exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between air and blood
changes food to simple chemicals that can be absorbed & used by body
removes waste products from circulatory system, regulates blood ph, ion balance
- ovaries,uterus, testes,prostate gland
produces egg or sperm, provides site for embryo
- Parts of a neuron
- 1. nucleus
2. axon hillock
6. myelin sheath
- Nervous system does what?
- upper arm
- small of back
- back of head
- wall of cavity
- knee cap
- pelvic floor
- sole of foot
- back of knee
- base of spine
- side of head
- Dorsal cavity
- cranial & spine
- ventral cavity
- thoracic - heart & lungs
abdomen - stomach
- above or higher
- below or lower
- toward front
- toward back
- away from midline
- main part
- extending from main part
- close to origin
- away from origin
- organ within cavity
- Initial Interview guide:
- where, when, why, what, how
- Presenting information
- 1. how did client get there?
2. who referred?
3. why referred?
4. what is client's perception?
- Medical Disabilities and limitations:
- 1. what are client's current disabilities
2. any medicatons?
3. involved in treatment?
4. further treatment plans
- psychological disabilities & limitations
- 1. history of emotional or behavorial problems?
2. is psychiatric exam required?
- vocational handicap
- 1. how does disability cause problem in getting job?
2. how does cause keeping job?
3. daily activities?
- Vocational history and interests
- 1. clients expectations, past job history?
2. work habits?
- education and training
- 1. educational history
2. outcome of previous training
3. attitude toward training
- family living situation
- 1. family unit description
- economic considerations
- 1. source of financial support
2. special sources
- independent living
- 1. money management
2. self-care activities without assistance
3. care for children alone?
- other involved agencies & persons
- 1. other agencies involved?
- 1. Counselors observations and impressions?
2. was a counseling relationship established?
- to do
- 1. what requests for examinations be made?
2. what other things did counselor agree to do?
3. what is client expected to do?
- Is a burn a progressive disease?
- Classifications of burns:
- 1. first degree - superficial
2. second - partial thickness
3. third - full thickness
depth and % of body surface involved
- First Degree
- epidermis only, superficial
usually heal within two to three weeks.
- Second degree
- epidermis & dermis w/varying depths...histamine, capillaries are more permeable, fluid under tissue
same as first
- Third Degree
- epidermis, dermis & all appendages, full thickness, slow healing, severe scarring, loss of normal rom
fire, flame or electrical
- Fourth degree
- damage to fat, muscle, or bone below level of skin and full thickness of skin also.
- Greatest age group at risk for burns
- 20-30 years
- Essay: Contractions:
- scars, itching, eye injuries, loss of facial members, hair loss, cosmetic disfigurement, loss of mobility, shortening of tissues, ability to meet public, self-image, acceptance
- Stratum corneum
- prevents loss or entry of water
if unbroken, prevents entry of pathogens
continuous mitosis produces new cells to replace worn off ones
produce melanin on exposure to UV rays
protects living skin layers from further exposure to UV Rays
- Areolar connective tissue
- connects skin to muscles, contains many WBC's to destroy pathogens
contains stored energy in the form of true fats
cushions bony prominences
insulation from cold
- Papillary layer
eccrine sweat glands
- contains capillries that nourish the stratum germinativum
eyelashes and nasal hair keep dust out of eyes and nose
scalp hair provides insulation from cold
protect ends of fingers and toes from mechanical injury
detect changes that are felt as the cutaneous senses: touch, heat, cold, pain
produce sebum, prevents dry skin and hair
produce cerumen, prevents drying of eardrum
produce water sweat that is evaporated by body heat to cool body
dilate in response to warmth to increase heat loss
constrict to cold
constrict under stress
converted to vitamin D on UV rays
- Rules of Nines:
- path of electrical current (the body is the conductor) 3rd degree usually is where blood flows
- estimating surface area involved. the body divided into areas grossly = multiples of 9% of the body surface.
- Common reasons
- 1. vascular disease
5. congenital abnormalities
6. thermal, chemical, or electrical injury.
- Types of surgical amputation:
- 1. joint - disarticulation
2. stump - closed amputation
3. toes or small bones of foot - minor amputation
4. wrist or ankle - major amputations
- 1. ulceration of stump
2. amputation neuroma
3. phantom limb
- functional limitations:
- 1. Upper
3. upper or lower
a. sudden jarring
b. environmental conditions
- Vocational impediments:
- 1. Is person willing to use a prothesis?
2. what is condition of stump?
3. any other vascular complications?
4. driving aids?
- Initial interview
- 1. diabetes?
2. vascular disease?
4. condition of stump
5. length of stump
- definition of cancer:
- abnormal cell growth called tumors or neoplasms
- definition of metasticized
- cell becomes systemic and carried from blood to organs
- Functional limitations
- 1. stamina
3. lifting ability
4. climbing ability
5. walking endurance
6. tolerance to temp changes
- 1. below normal weight?
2. signs of loss of stamina?
3. signs of treatment or surgery, hair loss, etc.
- Initial Interview questions:
- 1. kind of cancer
2. recent changes
3. physician prognosis
4. modes of treatment
5. side effects of meds
6. current meds
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