Glossary of Clinical Psychology Exam Questions
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- As a communications theorist and therapist, Haley deals with the concepts of the double-bind, setting coalition, and what else?
- Paradoxical Interventions: instruct the patient to engage in the symptomatic behavior.
Haley: communications theorist; strategic family therapy.
- According to psychoanalystic theory, the ego defense mechanisms function to...
- Keep unacceptable impulses from reaching consciousness.
Anxiety results when the defense mechanisms breakdown and fail to control "psychic excitation," or the entry of unconscious impulses into consciousness.
- From the perspective of Gestalt therapy, the term introjection refers to?
- Introjection is a boudary disturbance that involves assimilating info., beliefs, and values without really understanding them. Ex: we might accept values, such as the work ethic and individualism without really thinking them through because they are highly recognized in our culture.
- What clinical test was developed on the basis of empirical criterion keying? What is emperical criterion keying?
Emperical criterion keying is a method of choosing items for a test on the basis of the items ability to distinguish between groups (i.e., depressed vs. nondepressed)
- A feminist therapist would...
- Focus on social and political factors that underlie a woman's so-called psychpathology.
Feminist-therapy assumes that sexism and oppressive social roles underlie the problems of women who seek therapy.
Tries to reduce the inherent power differential between therapists and clients.
Often involves untrained women educating and supporting other women.
- What is congruence.
- In Roger's client-centered therapy, is the genuineness and consistency between a therapists's words and behaviors.
- What are concepts that underlie Minuchin's structural family therapy?
- What is the theory underlying reality therapy?
- Psychological problems are due to an inability to responsibly and adequately meet one's basic needs. These needs include survival, belonging (affiliation), power, fun, and freedom
- According to psychoanalytic theory, a patient with an obsessive-compulsive neurosis is likely to strongly rely on which set of defenses?
- REACTION FORMATION: dealing with unacceptable impulses by substituting their opposite (OC personality is often overly rigid in matters of morality and ethics)
ISOLATION OF AFFECT: separation of thoughts from their associated feelings (OCPD can describe affectively charged events, but prefers to avoid discussing feelings about them)
UNDOING: Behavior designed to symbolically negate unacceptable thoughts or behaviors. (Ritualistic compulsions in response to obsessions)
- What is primary process thinking? Secondary process thinking?
- PRIMARY PROCESS THINKING: According to Freud, pp thinking is governed by the id and functions according to the pleasure principle.
SECONDARY PROCESS THINKING: Conscious mental processing governed by the conscious part of the ego.
- According to Jung, when do people turn from an extroverted to an introverted process?
- Around age 40.
Extroversion: the disposition to find pleasure in external things.
Introversion: a turning inward of the libido.
- Adler used the concept of the "masculine protest" to refer to?
- INFERIORITY COMPLEX.
Every child experiences feelings of inferiority which supply the motivation to grow, dominate, and be supportive.
- Harry Stack Sullivan believed that neurotic behavior is often caused by:
- PARATAXIC DISTORTIONS: dealing with current acquaintances as if they were significant persons from their early life. He also described cognitive experiences, including:
SYNTAXIC MODE: involves symbols with shared meanings.
PROTOTAXIC MODE: involves discrete unconnected momentary states.
- Fritz Perls Gestalt Therapy and Theory of Personality emphasizes:
- BOUNDARY DISTURBANCES
Perl's theory of personality viewed it as consistency of the self and self-image.
A person's interactions with the environment determine which part of the personality exerts the most control.
A "boundary disturbance", such as introjection, deflection, and confluence, results in a person who is less controlled by the self and more controlled by the self-image.
- A homeless, unemployed Af. Am. man is depressed and feels that he is a victim of racial oppression. According to Derald Sue, he has:
Internal locus of control/internal locus of responsibility
Internal locus of control/external locus of resonsib
- D: Sue found that members of minority groups that exhibit learned helplessness have both an external locus of control and responsibility.
- Using a psychoanalytic approach, the sequence of interventions would be:
- The term "collaborative empiricism" is associated with:
- Aaron Beck: "collective empiricism" refers to the collaborative relationship between client and therapist using a rational, logical approach to examine the client's thoughts and assumptioms--which are treated as hypotheses to be tested.
- According to the DSM-IV, a diagnostic (vs. an associated_ feature of antisocial personality disorder is:
Inflated sense of self
Lack of remorse
Lack of empathy
- Lack of remorse
- From the Freudian perspective, phobias are a means of reducing anxiety stemming from an unresolved conflict. Freud explained Hans's fear of horses as due to an unresolved conflict that had its origins in the:
- Phallic stage: Freud explained his fear of horses as displacement of anxiety from an unresolved Oedipal conflict
- Caution is necessary when considering Ritalin for a hyperactive child who has a history of:
Family history of Tourette's Syndrome
Family history of drug abuse
Co-morbid diagnosis of a LD
Co-diagnosis of Conduct disorder
- A: Some hyperactive children develop motor tics when taking Ritalin. Drug should not be used when child has a pre-existing tic disorder or a family history of tic disorder.
- A father and his 19-year-old son present for therapy due to a variety of conflicts in their relationship. The father is a businessman and the son is an artist. What techniques would a solution-focused therapist use?
Joining and restructuring
- C: solution-focused therapists use a variety of techniques to identify solutions to a client's problems. The miracle and scaling questions are two such techniques. The miracle question invites the client to imagine what it would be like if his problem was suddenly gone. The scaling question invited each family member to rate a situation to see how the problem is perceived by others.
Choice A: structual family therapists.
Choice B: strategic family therapists
Choice D: Object relations family therapists.
- Which of the following are all possible causes of Mood Disorder caused by a known organic factor (substance use or medical condition)?
Hypothyroidism, broken bones, barbituate use.
Arthritis, hyperthyroidism, cerbral palsy.
- The following disorders are possible causes of an organically-based mood symptoms: Hallucinogens and PCP, endocrine disorders (hypo-and hyperthyroidism), carcinoma of the pancreas, viral illness, and structual diseases of the brain (stroke).
- According to psychoanalytic theory, defense mechanisms are derived:
By the unconscious part of the ego transforming the warded-off impulse into a symptom that allows for both gratification of the wish and adherence to the prohibition against its exp
- An Af. Am. adult repeatedly expresses his superiority as an Af. Am. and expresses his contempt for all Caucasians. According to Cross' Nigrescence Theory, this person is most likely in which stage of development?
- C: During the Immersion-Emersion stage, there is a tendency for AA to idealize other AAs and the culture and to denigrate Caucasion individuals and the culture.
- The incidence of OCD is:
the same for males and females across all ages.
about twice as common in males than females
higher among boys but about equal among adult males and females.
higher among girls but about equal among adult males
Males: peak onset is between ages 6-15
Females: peak onset is between 20-29.
- A man is referred for psychotherapy by his physician after ruling out sleep apnea and other medical conditions. The patient reports having vivid frightening dreams, restless sleep, chronic fatigue, and a history of alcohol abuse. His diagnosis is likely:
- C: Sleep can be disturbed as a result of both alcohol intoxification and alcohol withdrawal. Initially, alcohol produces a sedative effect with increased sleepiness. However, after 3-4 hours of sleep, there is an increase in wakefulness, restless sleep, and REM, often accompanied by a vivid anxiety-laden dream for the remainder of the sleep period. Primary insomnia is not due to the direct effects of a substance and is not typically associated with vivid frightening dreams. Choice D is not a DSM-IV diagnosis.
- Although considered to be an effective treatment for severe and treatment-resistant depression, ECT often produces adverse side effects including:
temporary retrograde amnesia
permanent retrograde amnesia
patchy anterograde amnesia
- D: the anterograde amnesia can last up to 6 months and the retrograde amnesia is usually limited to the events that occurred several months prior to the ECT.
- A child is put in time-out because he was making the other children laugh in class. After 15-minutes in time out, he apologized to the teacher and promised not to do that again. The teacher then allowed him to return to his regular seat. The following da
- D: Escape conditioning: the boy's remorse is due to negative reinforcement, that is, the removal of the aversive stimulus (time-out) led to an increase in the probability of his (remorseful) behavior. Escape conditioning is a type of negative reinforcement, as the individual is able to escape from an aversive stimulus by engaging in a particular behavior. Avoidance conditioning is another type of negative reinforcement in which a cue is presented PRIOR to the aversive stimulus, signaling the individual to avoid it.
- According to Kohlberg's theory of moral development, individuals who reach stage 5 base their moral judgments on:
Universal ethical principles
- C: Stage 5 begins the post-conventional level of moral devt. A person in this stage seeks to uphold democratically-determined laws, but recognizes that laws can be ignored or changed for a valid reason. Choice D is more characteristic of Stage 6 in Kohlberg's model in which morality transcends legal standards. Choice B (Autonomous morality) is used by Piaget denoting the stage when children recognize that rules are determined by agreement and are alterable.
- A couple avoids any marital conflict by focusing their attention on their child's problems. According to Minuchin's Structural Theory, this is an example of:
- D:Detouring is a type of boundary problem in which the spouse avoids tensions between themselves by blaming or overprotecting the child.
- When a mother leaves her 12-month old child with a stranger, the child becomes very upset, yet, ignores her when she returns. What type of attachment pattern does this indicate?
- C:Babies with resistant attachment patterns are anxious in the presence of their mother and become more upset when she leaves. They are also ambivalent when she returns and may resist her attempts at physical contact.
Babies with an avoidant attachment pattern may also avoid contact with mother when she returns, but will show little distress when she leaves. Babies with a disoriented pattern alternate between avoidant and resistant patterns and are apprehensive and confused.
- A mother complains that her 10-year-old son has been misbehaving a lot lately. He refuses to do anything that he is asked, has been staying out late at night, starting fights with his classmates, and has been caught lying on numerous occasions. His mothe
- B: Conduct disorder--there is a patterns of behavior in which major age-appropriate norms or rules are violated. Adjustment disorder can only be considered if the sx don'e meet the diagnostic criteria for another disorder. His sx are more severe than is characteristic of ODD and are not just isolated incidents of Antisocial behavior as seen in Child Antisocial Behavior.
- In the Adult Attachment Interview, a 30-year-old woman reports having had a very good childhood, yet when asked, fails to provide any specific examples of what made it very good. When she is reunited with her 14-month old child, who was placed in a stran
- A: Through intergenerational transmission process, parents' attachment patterns tend to create similar patterns in their children. The mother in this question appears to have what's known as a dismissing pattern of attachment. People with this pattern tend to devalue attachment relationships, and although they speak positively of their parents, when asked, they fail to provide specific examples to support their evaluations. 3/4 of their children have an avoidant attachment pattern. B is characteristic of the resistant child-most often resulting from a preoccupied parent. C is seen in the secure child. D is characteristic of a child with a disoriented attachment--which tends to develop from a parent with an unresolved attachment pattern.
- In his theory of attachment, Bowlby referred to the structures which hold cognitive representations of the self and others as:
Internal working models
Representations of interactions that have been generalized (RIGs)
- B: Internal working models: describe the cognitive representations that children develop of themselves and others. These models are formed during childhood, but continue to develop over time.
- During an intial session with an adult client, you realize that you are already treating her mother. The primary problem with continuing to see this new client has to do with:
Conflict of interest
- C: Conflict of interest. Multiple relationships refers to having more than one type of relationship with the same person, for example, if a psychologist were to see one of his current students in psychotherapy.
- A couple comes to therapy complaining that all their conversations end in arguments. This is characteristic of which pattern of communication?
- A: Symmetrical. Communication patterns can be characterized as either symmetrical or complimentary. In symmetrical comm. there is equality between the partners, however, this can result in competition and conflict. In complimentary comm. there is inequality and one partner takes the dominant role and the other a subordinate role. Pseudohostility presents as superficial bickering in order to avoid real conflicts. In mystification, the person uses denial to mask what is really going on.
- A candidate for the psychology licensing exam wants to maximize his long-term memory of all the study materials. The most effective strategy would be to use:
- C: Elaborative rehearsal, in which a person thinks about the meaning of new information and its relation to information already in memory, resulting in deeper learning and is considered superior to all forms of mindless repetition. Spaced practice is also generally more effective than massed practice.
- A high school student, interested in an acting career, is afraid of disappointing his father who always wanted his son to follow in his footsteps by becoming a doctor. After little deliberation, the young man announces to his family that he will become a
- B: Identity foreclosure: a commitement to an identity that is not a result of an identity crisis, but rather, the suggestions of a parent or another person is called identity foreclosure. Identity diffusion describes young people who have not undergone an identity crisis nor have committed to an identity. Identity moratorium occurs when a person is confused, having an identity crisis, and actively exploring different options.
- Research on therapists who became sexually involved with their clients showed that:
- The therapist violated other boundaries before the sexual involvement began.
- A shortcoming of most curriculum-based suicide prevention programs for adolescents is that:
They are based on a stress model of suicide.
They are based on a mental illness model of suicide.
They tend to stigmatize suicide.
- A:Most curriculum-based suicide programs for adolescents tend try to reduce the stigmatization of suicide by attributing it to stressful life events rather than (more correctly) to mental illness.
- Baseon psychotherapy outcome research, your best estimate of therapy clients showing measurable improvement at the end of therapy is:
- D: 75%
- Locke and Latham's goal-setting theory focuses primarily on:
Ability and effort
Perceived effort and performance
Expectations and effort
Intentions and effort
- D: Intentions and effort: goal-setting theory proposes that when people accept goals, they intend to achieve them and, therefore, are willing to put forth effort to do so.
- Research using a "dismantling" strategy suggests that the most critical component of systematic desensitization is:
- C: Classical extinction: repeated exposure to the CS without the presence of the US is responsible for systematic desensitization's positive effects.
- A patient reports that he is criticized by his co-workers for failing to do his job properly. He can't understand why they're complaining, especially because he feels he is being given too much work and everybody else is to blame for the organization's p
- Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder: characterized by a pervasive pattern of passive resistance to demands for adequate social or occupational performance.Signs of the disorder include protesting that others make unreasonable demands, believing that one is doing a much better job than others think, and resenting useful suggestions from others.
- Research suggests that __________is the single best treatment for Agoraphobia.
- In-vivo flooding: exposing an individual to anxiety-proviking stimuli while preventing an avoidance response.
- Thermal biofeedback for migraine headaches is mediated by the _____________nervous system. Biofeedback to induce relaxation is mediated by the ______________nervous system.
- Thermal biofeedback for migraine headaches is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Biofeedback to induce relaxation is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system.
- Research comparing patients with schizophrenia from non-Western developing countries to those from Western industrialized countries has found that they differ in terms of:
Age and gender
Gender and prognosis
Course and outcom
- D: Course and outcome, patients from developing countries more often exhibite acute onset of sx, shorter clinical course, and a complete remission of sx. No differences were found in regards to age, gender, or type of sx.
- What is parallel process?
- A phenomenon in clinical supervision where the therapist in training behaves toward the supervising therapist in ways that mirror how the client is behaving toward the therapist in training.
- Which is more pronounced aggressive children in regards to social interactions: the primacy or recency effect?
- Recency effect: aggressive children are likely to focus on cues that occur at the end of the social interaction than the beginning.
- A therapist is most likely to exert _________ type of power over a client.
- Referent:based on the person's attraction to or desire to be like the holder of power. (Expert power is another good answer)
- Increased awareness is the primary goal of which of the following types of therapy?
- C: Gestalt therapy
- According to research findings of Patterson et al., parents of aggressive children typically use discipline which is: Consistent, but accompanied by humiliating verbal messages.
Consistent, but often followed by affection which sends mixed messages
- C: Also, parents tend to reinforce their children's aggressive behavior with attention and approval.
- The police inform you that they have a warrant out on one of your clients who is suspected of several felony charges of grand theft auto. They want you to provide them with the client's address and phone number. You should:
- Refuse to provide them with info. and notify your client since there is no indication that your client is in imminent danger to self or others, you would be obligated to protect the confidentiality rights of your client. However, you should notify the client of this info and discuss the option of turning himself in to the police.
- According to Janet Helms, a White member of the city council meeting, which consists of members from different racial and cultural backgrounds, is most likely to work cooperatively if the members are in which stage of development?
- D: Autonomy
- A quiet, lonely, introverted, overly sensitive teenager with few friends is at high risk for suicide, with this risk increasing when these characteristics are combined with:
Physical health problems
- C: suicide risk is increased in adolescents who are depressed, hostile, aggressive, or exhibit other antisocial behaviors, and/or substance abuse.
- Research suggests that minority adolescents score higher than white adolescents in which stage of ethnic identity development?
- C: foreclosure
- Masters and Johnson found that their version of sex therapy, which incorporates education about sexuality, training in communication skills, and the technique known as sensate focus, is most effective for treating:
- A: Premature ejaculation
- Which of the following individuals would agress that acqusition of language is due largely to biologically-programmed capacities?
- C: Chomsky is a nativist and propsed the existence of an innate "language acquisition device."
- From the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy, suicidal individuals are characterized by a high degree of hopelessness coupled with:
Poor problem-solving skills
The "cognitive triad"
- B: Poor problem-solving skills
- The object relations approach focuses on the role of ______ in personality development and views it as being an innate drive.
- According to Bowen, to reduce tension between them, family members often resort to:
- C: triangulation: triangles are a means of reducing tension and conflict between two family members who refocus their attention on the triangulated member. Emotional divorce is the only other term associated with Bowen.
- What is the method of loci?
- A mnemonic device where you visualize names or objects to be remembered in familiar locations.
- Research comparing the relationship between age and therapy outcome has produced mixed results. However, in their most recent meta-analysis, Weisz and his colleagues found:
- Therapy is more beneficial for adolescents than children, especially among girls and when the counselor is a professional or student (not a paraprofessional).
- From the perspective of Bandura's social learning theory, "functional value" refers to:
- Anticipated consequences.
- According to Theodore Millan, people with Narcissistic Personality Disorder rely primarily on which of the defense mechanisms?
- When narcisstic people experience personal failure and public humiliation, they first rely on:
and if that doesn't work:
- The research suggests that to control excessive aggression in children, the best approach is:
Time out and similar behavioral consequences.
Opportunities for catharsis.
Explaining the consequences of aggressive acts.
- D: social skills training
- Overcorrection typically involves what 3 steps?
- 1. RETITUTION
2. GUIDED MOVEMENT
3. POSITIVE PRACTICE
Overcorrection is a behavioral technique designed to eliminate undesirable consequences and to promote alternative ones. The person is first required to correct the consequences of the negative bx (restitution). Then the person must repeatedly practice alternative behaviors (positive practice). In many cases the person is physically guided through the resitution and/or positive practice stages.
- In implosive therapy, a client is:
A: Gradually exposed, though the imagination, to a feared stimulus, one step at a time.
B: Immediately exposed, through the imagination, to a feared stimulus at its maximum intensity.
C: Gradually exposed
- Regarding the relationship between bipolar disorder and environmental factors, environmental factors are likely to have a ________ impact during the early stages of the disorder.
- A behavior therapist would likely view anxiety as the result of:
Classical conditioning, in which an aversive stimulus or negative life event served as an US.
Classical conditioning, in which an aversive stimulus or negative life event served a
- A: CC is associated with the acquisition of INVOLUNTARY responses, whereas OC involves VOLUNTARY responses.
Ex: being stuck in an elevator (US), by being paired with elevators in general (CS), might cause an elevator phobia (CR).
- From the perspective of psychoanalytic theory, mania represents:
- A defense against depression
- From the perspective of humanistic schools of psychology, psychopathology would be seen as being due to:
Man's irrational nature, which interferes with a disciplined course of behaviors to enhance personal growth.
Defenses that interfere with o
- B: Defenses that interfere with one's own natural tendency toward personal growth. Within the humanistic school of psychotherapy, includes person-centered therapy, Gestalt therapy, and transactional analysis. These theories emphasize human capacities rather than deficiencies. We have a natural tendency toward self-actualization or personal growth. Neurosis or pathology occurs due to defensive distortions that prevent this natural tendency from operating (Gestalt therapy: blocks to awareness/Person-centered therapy: conditions of worth)
- In psychoanalytic practice, transference is:
counteracted through direct interpretation of its use as a resistance.
Discouraged as an interference with the treatment process.
A sign that treatment is having an effect and discussed as the p
- A primary tenet of rational-emotive therapy is:
_______ determines _________.
- A belief determines behavior.
- According to research on sex-role determinants, the characteristic that is most related to genetics as opposed to socialization is:
- Based on Schachter's work, one would treat a client with obesity by:
Manipulating the external cues.
Changing the client's self-attributions.
Changing the social reinforcers for food consumption.
Manipulating the internal cues.
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