Glossary of Clin Med- Pulmonology

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Definition of Acute Asthma
-reversible airflow obstruction associated w/ a state of inc. responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to many different stimuli
Extrinsic Asthma
-allergic or atopic
Intrinsic Asthma
-no obvious extrinsic cause
pathophysiology of asthma
-mucous production
-inc'd airway resistance
-hypoxemia, hypercarbia
-dec'd max expiratory flow rates
definition of pleural effusion
-Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
Exudative effusion
-abnormality of the pleura
-parapneumonia, malignancy, PE
-most commonly associated with bacterial pneumonia
Transudative effusion
-Imbalance of oncotic or hydrostatic pressure
-CHF, cirrhosis
-serous in appearance
Pleural fluid/Serum Protein ratio of effusions
-transudative: <0.5
-exudative: >0.5
Pleural fluid/serum LDH ration of effusions
-transudative: <0.6
-exudative: >0.6
Absolute LDH of effusions
-transudative: NL
-exudative: > 2/3
definition of PTX
-accumulation of air in the normally airless pleural space, between the lung and chest wall
Primary Spontaneous PTX
-NL young, healthy people w/o lung disease
-young, tall, thin, males
Secondary Spontaneous PTX
-Occurs as complication of underlying pulmonary disease - COPD- most common cause
- Necrotizing pulmonary Infx
Catemenial PTX
-recurs at menstrual period
- thought secondary to pleural and diaphragmatic endometriosis
Traumatic PTX
-penetrating and nonpenetrating trauma
Iatrogenic PTX
-most common
-Usually due to complications of CVP line access, thoracenthesis pleural Bx, mech
Tension PTX
-compromises ventilation by shifting mediastinal structures, impairing venous retain & cardiac output
- often occurs as complication of mech. vent. or other secondary PTX
- not common with primary PTX
T/F: Pneumonia is the 6th leading cause of death in the US
90% of bacterial cases are due to...
-pneumococcal pneumonia
Which pneumonia will you find a rust-colored sputum?
-strep pneumonia (pneumococcal)
Which pneumonia will you find patchy alveolar infiltrates on CXR?
-Haemophilis influenza
Which pneumonia is necrotizing lobar pneumonia with bulging minor fissure on CXR?
Which pneumonia is contracted through the airborne transmission heat exchange systems, resp. therapy devices, water sprays and NOT human to human contact?
What is the most common type of pneumonia?
definition of acute bronchitis
-Inflammation of the bronchial mucosa due to infection
What is the most common cause of acute bronchitis?
Name three bacterial causing factors of acute bronchitis
-Haemophilus influenza,
-Streptococcus pneumoniae,
-Moraxella catarrhalis
-contraction of diaphragm (primary respiratory muscle) increases intrathoracic volume
-passive process as diaphragm relaxes and elastic recoil restores resting volume
What is the primary factor that chemoreceptors notice?
generalized hypoxia over time results in...
-pulmonary HTN
-forced vital capacity
-forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation
-adjusts FEV1 to individual’s actual FVC
-diffusion capacity of CO2, measurement of overall alveolar function
NL pO2
>60 (corresponds to 90% saturation)
definition of COPD
-characterized by permanent obstruction of airflow
-smoking is the major cause
T/F: COPD is the 20th leading cause of death in the US
False: 4th
COPD pathophys
-Mucous hypersecretion
-Ciliary dysfunction
-Airflow limitation
-Pulmonary hyperinflation
-Gas exchange abnormalities
definition of emphysema
-permanent enlargement of alveolar ducts and sacs with destruction of their walls
definition of chronic bronchitis
-excessive secretion of mucous causing cough for at least 3 months in at least 2 consecutive years
Etiology of emphysema
-smoking causes inflammation
-surfactant deficiency
TLC = Vt + IRV + ERV + RV
or TLC = VC + RV
VC= Vt + IRV + ERV
-should be 80% of TLC
IC = Vt + IRV

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