Glossary of Clin. Med.

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What is Edema?
-too much fluid between cells
severe generalized edema
prefix for edema
ex. hydrothorax
Causes of Edema
1. increased intravascular hydrostatic forces
2. loss of vascular osmotic forces
3. compromised endothelial cell function
4. compromised lymphatic channel func
5. sodium retention
snow ball effect
protein loss leading to edema resulting in a loss of intravascular fluid to the interstitial space leading to hypovolemia leading to salt and water retention by kidney and more edema
What is hyperemia?
-increase in arterial input
-increase volume of blood in vessels
What is congestion?
-decrease venous outflow
-backup of blood
What does hemorrhage mean?
-loss of blood from the intravascular space due to rupture of blood vessel
What causes hemorrhage?
-trauma (raquetball)
What are the types of hemorrhages?
External and internal (may use proteins and iron over again)
What is an example of an external hemorrhage?
-bleeding nose
-hemorrhage of the GI tract
accumulation of blood in tissues
What is an example of a hematoma?
a bruise
What happens to a hematoma?
it can calcify
What is a hemorrhage of the skin called?
What are the two different sizes of a hematoma?
-petechaie (pencil sz): less than 5mm in diameter
-ecchymosiss: more than 5mm in diameter
significance of a hemorrhage depends on ...
1. how much blood is loss
2. rate of blood
3. location
what is the percentage of blood loss needed to cause a problem?
What results from slow blood loss?
-taking aspirin daily
-syncope due to blood loss
-blackfan-diamond syndrome
What does Hemostasis mean?
cessation of blood
why does hemostasis occur?
-release of clotting factors
-clotting cascade
what does thrombosis mean?
-formation of a clot
What is thrombosis the main cause of?
-heart attack
What happens when you have abnormal thrombosis formation?
1. endothelial injury
2. statis and turbulensce
3. hypercoagulable state
What is an embolism?
a mass that shouldn't be in the cardiovascular system
What is thromboembolism?
mass due to a blood clot
what is an infarction?
an area undergoing necrosis due to loss of arterial supply or venous drainage
What are the largest % of infarcts due to?
thromboembolism and thrombosis
Define shock
lack of blood supply to a tissue
What does shock lead to?
hypoxic injury (lack of oxygen)
Symptoms of shock patients
-hypotension (low b.p.)
-ashen grew color
-cool clammy skin
-weak rapid pulse
-increased respiratory rate
-body says not enough oxygen
cardiogenic shock
-hear pump failure
-can't pump enough blood to the tissues and especially the vital organs
hypovolemic shock
-due to hemorrhage
-diarrhea and vomiting in children
Septic Shock
-grame negative bacteria
-infection of bloodsteam (septicemia)
Neurogenic Shock
-simple fainting
-triggered by emotions
-b.p. is low
anaphylactic shock
-due to allergic reaction
-may be due to insect stings
Irreversible Shock
-may follow any form of shock and if the shock is reversed, death will ensue
-due to a vital organ that can't be repaired
-pt will probably die

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