Glossary of Clin. Med.
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- What is Edema?
- -too much fluid between cells
- severe generalized edema
- prefix for edema
- Causes of Edema
- 1. increased intravascular hydrostatic forces
2. loss of vascular osmotic forces
3. compromised endothelial cell function
4. compromised lymphatic channel func
5. sodium retention
- snow ball effect
- protein loss leading to edema resulting in a loss of intravascular fluid to the interstitial space leading to hypovolemia leading to salt and water retention by kidney and more edema
- What is hyperemia?
- -increase in arterial input
-increase volume of blood in vessels
- What is congestion?
- -decrease venous outflow
-backup of blood
- What does hemorrhage mean?
- -loss of blood from the intravascular space due to rupture of blood vessel
- What causes hemorrhage?
- -trauma (raquetball)
- What are the types of hemorrhages?
- External and internal (may use proteins and iron over again)
- What is an example of an external hemorrhage?
- -bleeding nose
-hemorrhage of the GI tract
- accumulation of blood in tissues
- What is an example of a hematoma?
- a bruise
- What happens to a hematoma?
- it can calcify
- What is a hemorrhage of the skin called?
- What are the two different sizes of a hematoma?
- -petechaie (pencil sz): less than 5mm in diameter
-ecchymosiss: more than 5mm in diameter
- significance of a hemorrhage depends on ...
- 1. how much blood is loss
2. rate of blood
- what is the percentage of blood loss needed to cause a problem?
- What results from slow blood loss?
- -taking aspirin daily
-syncope due to blood loss
- What does Hemostasis mean?
- cessation of blood
- why does hemostasis occur?
-release of clotting factors
- what does thrombosis mean?
- -formation of a clot
- What is thrombosis the main cause of?
- What happens when you have abnormal thrombosis formation?
- 1. endothelial injury
2. statis and turbulensce
3. hypercoagulable state
- What is an embolism?
- a mass that shouldn't be in the cardiovascular system
- What is thromboembolism?
- mass due to a blood clot
- what is an infarction?
- an area undergoing necrosis due to loss of arterial supply or venous drainage
- What are the largest % of infarcts due to?
- thromboembolism and thrombosis
- Define shock
- lack of blood supply to a tissue
- What does shock lead to?
- hypoxic injury (lack of oxygen)
- Symptoms of shock patients
- -hypotension (low b.p.)
-ashen grew color
-cool clammy skin
-weak rapid pulse
-increased respiratory rate
-body says not enough oxygen
- cardiogenic shock
- -hear pump failure
-can't pump enough blood to the tissues and especially the vital organs
- hypovolemic shock
- -due to hemorrhage
-diarrhea and vomiting in children
- Septic Shock
- -grame negative bacteria
-infection of bloodsteam (septicemia)
- Neurogenic Shock
- -simple fainting
-triggered by emotions
-b.p. is low
- anaphylactic shock
- -due to allergic reaction
-may be due to insect stings
- Irreversible Shock
- -may follow any form of shock and if the shock is reversed, death will ensue
-due to a vital organ that can't be repaired
-pt will probably die
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