Glossary of Climates 2

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What is a rain shadow?
an area where very little rainfall occurs on the leeward side of a mountain.
The top layer called the ___________ has super high temperatures due to ________
Thermosphere, x-rays
What is stream discharge?
the amount of water passing a given point in a stream in a certain period of time.
What is humid?
If the total annual precipitation is greaer than the potential evapotranspiration.
What is arid?
If the total annual precipitation is less than the potential evapotranspiration.
what three things can Insolation (incoming solar radiation)do when it enters the atmosphere?
absorbed, reflected, and scattered
Most absobtion of ultraviolet and infared radiation takes place where?
stratosphere and troposphere
What are aerosols
water droplets, ice crystals, air polutants, amd dust
What is potential evapotranspiration?
the amount of water that would evaporate or transpire if the water were available.
What is a water budget?
a monthly account of what happens to the water in a particular location over the course of a year.
Potential evapotranspiration is highest in the ________ whan the temperatures are ___________.
summer, higest
What is the most important factor affecting climate patterns? why?
latitude, because it because latitude influences temperature patterns.
What is base flow?
During dry periods, when the amount of runoff diminishes, a base flow is when a stram takes water from the ground water supply thus lowering the water table.
Which heats up and cools down faster: land or water? why?
land heats and cools faster because water has a much higher spacific heat than land
What would happen if the amount of carbon dioxide in the air was increased?
the earths temperature would rise and eventually the ice caps would melt flooding costal cities world wide
Any material that is a good absorber is a good _________
In the statosphere, the temperature ____________ with altitude.
the top portion of each layer ends in a ...pause. What are the four pauses?
Tropopause, stratopause, mesopause, and thermopause
What two elements are good absorbers of infared radiation?
water vapor and carbon dioxide
What is terrestrial radiation?
electromagnetic energy given off by the surface of earth.
What object reflects most insolation?
What is the Greenhouse effect?
the process that allows short- wave radiation to be transmitted but which absorbes reradiated, long- wave radiation and transforms it to heat energy
Name the four distinct layers of the atmosphere
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere
Water vapor and carbon dioxide absorb which type of infared radiation?
long- wave
Where is the troposhere located and what occurs here?
it is closest to the earths surface and earths weather occurs in the troposphere.
Precipitation occurs on which side of the mountain?
windward side
IN areas away from large bodies of water, which have cold winters, hot summers, and large temp. range are said to have a _____ cliamte
locations where temperatures are modified by the presence of large bodies of water are said to have a_______climate
As elevation increases, the ________ and saturation vapor pressure ______________
temperature, decrease

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