Glossary of Cliff's AP Biology Vocabulary: Cells

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Peripheral Proteins
proteins attaches to the inner or outer surface of the membrane
Integral Proteins
proteins that extend into the membrane
Transmembrane Proteins
integral proteins that span across the membrane, appearing at both surfaces.
Fluid Mosaic Model
the mosaic nature of scattered proteins within a flexible matrix of phospholipids
Selective Permeability
Only small, uncharged, polar molecules, and hydrophobic molecules may freely pass across the membrane.
Channel Proteins
provide passageways through the membrane for certain hydrophilic substances such as polar and charged molecules
Transport Proteins
spend ATP to transfer materials across the membrane, also known as active transport
Recognition Proteins
Distinguish the identity of neighboring cells by using short polysacharride chains attached to the protein (glycoprotein)
Adhesion Proteins
attach cells to neighboring cells or provide anchors for the internal filaments and tubules that give stability to the cell.
Receptor Proteins
provide binding sites for hormons or other trigger molecules
Electron Transfer Proteins
involved in transferring electrons from one molecule to another during chemical reactions
molecules distributed throughout the phospholipid bilayer to provide some rigidity to the plasma membranes of animal cells
carbohydrate "coat" covering the outer face of the plasma membrane, it provides markers for cell-cell recognition through oligosacharrides.
bodies within the cytoplasm that serve to physically separate various metabolic reactions that occur within cells.
bounded by the nuclear envelope, the nucleus contains DNA, the hereditary information of the cell.
threadlike matrix in the nucleus where DNA is spread out
assist in the assembly of amino acids into proteins
Rough ER
creates glycoproteins by attaching polysacharride groups to polypeptides
Smooth ER
responsible for the synthesis of lipids and hormones
Golgi Apparatus
modify and package proteins and lipids into vesicles
small, spherically shaped sacs that bud from the outside surface of the golgi apparatus. They often migrate to and merge with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents outside of the the cell
A vesicle that contains digestive enzymes (do not occur in plants)
help break down various substances.
carry out aerobic respiration (energy is obtained from carbohydrates)
carry out photosynthesis (in plants)
What are the three protein fibers responsible for establishing the shape or coordinating the movement of the cytoskeleton?
Microtubules, Intermediate Filaments, Microfilaments
made of the protein tubulin and provide support and motility for cellular activities.
Intermediate Filaments
Provide support for maintaining the shape of the cell.
Made of the protein Actin and are involved in cell motility, they are found un muscle cells
Flagella and Cilia
structures that protrude from the cell membrane and make wavelike movements. They are classified by number, flagella are long and few, while cilia are short and many
What are Microtubule Organizing Centers (MTOCs) made up of?
Centrioles and Basal Bodies
A pair of centrioles gives rise to make the spindle apparatus
Basal Bodies
located at the base of each flagellum and cilium and appear to organize their development
Cell Walls
Developed outside of the plasma membrane, cell walls provide support for the cell
What are plant cell walls made of?
What are fungi cell walls made of?
Transport Vesicles
move materials between organelles or between organelles and the plasma membrane
Food Vaculoles
are temporary recepticles of nutrients
Storage Vacuoles
in plants, store starch, pigments, and toxic substances
Central Vacuoles
large bodies occupying most of the interior of plant cells. When fully filled, they exert turgor, or pressure against the cell walls, giving the cell rigidity.
Contractile Vacuoles
help collect and pump excess water out of the cell
Cell Junctions
serve to anchor cells to one another or to provide a passageway for cellular exchange
are protein attachments found in animal cells and act like spot welds to hold together tissues that undergo stress
Tight Junctions
tightly stitched seams between animal cells to prevent movement of material between cells.
Gap Junctions
narrow tunnels in animal cells that consist of proteins called connexons, which prevent cytoplasm mixing, but allows for small ions and molecules to pass
narrow channels between PLANT cells. A narrow tube of ER, called the desmotubule, passes through the channel.
How can plant cells be distinguished from animal cells?
the presence of cell walls, chloroplasts, and central vacuoles in plants and the presence of lysosomes and centrioles in animals.
Other than not having organelles, how do prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes?
no nucleus, single naked DNA molecule, smaller ribosomes, cell walls made of peptidoglycans (bacteria), flagella are not made of microtubules.
substance being dissolved
higher concentration of solutes
lower concentration of solutes
equal concentrations of solutes
Bulk Flow
collective movement of substances in the same direction in response to a force or pressure
Passive Transport
movement of substances from regions of higher to lower concentrations without using energy
Simple Diffusion
net movement of substances from an area of higher to lower concentration
molecules are uniformly distributed but continue to move randomly
diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane
diffusion of solutes across a selectively permeable membrane
movement of water out of a cell that results in collapse of the cell
Facilitated Diffusion
diffusion of solutes through channel proteins in the plasma membrane.
Countercurrent Exchange
diffusion of substances between two regions in which substances are moving by bulk flow in opposite directions
Active Transport
movement of solutes against a gradient and requires energy
Vesicular Transport
uses vesicles or other bodies to move macromolecules or large particles across the plasma membrane
vesicles fusing with plasma membrane and releasing contents
plasma membrane merges to engulf the substance, which enters the cytoplasm as a vesicle.
occurs when undissolved material enters the cell.
occurs when dissolved substances enter the cell --> plasma membrane folds inward and allows substance to accumulate
Receptor mediated endocytosis
occurs when specific molecules bind to specialized receptors that concentrate in coated pits in the plasma membrane.

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