Glossary of Clerkship - Neuro - Brain tumors (blueprints)
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- the most common metastatic brain tumor is from the _____?
- common brain tumor metastases: (4)
- lung, breast
- Risk factor for primary brain tumors:
- ionizing radiation
- Generalized signs of brain tumors are usually due to:
and present as:
- increased intracranial pressure (ICP)
HEADACHE, papilledema, nausea, vomiting, SEIZURES
- Test of choice for diagnosis of brain tumor:
- contrast-enhanced MRI scan
you can also use CT - shows ring-enhancing lesion (but ring enhancing lesion is also seen in abscesses...)
- 2 major categories of Glial tumors:
- most common malignant brain tumor of childhood?
- where does medulloblastoma arise from?
- medulloblastoma arises from cerebellum --> obstruction of flow of CSF in the aquaduct of the brainstem --> increased ICP
midline of cerebellum also --> truncal ataxia, unsteadiness of gait
- does medullobastoma metastasize?
- yes. to other parts of the brain and spinal cord, and outside CNS
Therefore contrast-enhancing imaging of the entire brain and spinal cord is indicated
- Most common BENIGN brain tumor:?
- treatment for meningioma?
- surgical for symptomatic lesions and observation for small asymptomatic lesions
- What type of cancer is Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL)?
- PCNSL is a diffuse non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Almost always B-cell derived.
Increasing, especially in AIDS patients
- Common presentation in PCNSL
- cognitive and behavioral changes - lesions are usually multifocal
- PCNSL can spread where?
- PCNSL can spread to CSF, eye, and bone
- Tx for PCNSL
- Tx for PCNSL is chemo with or without radiation
- If you see bilateral acoustic neuroma think:
- neurofibromatosis type 2
- what is an acoustic neuroma?
- a benign tumor (schwannoma) of the 8th cranial nerve
- acoustic neuroma typically presents with?
- unilateral hearing loss - except if it's a bilateral neuroma (seen in neurofibromatosis 2)
- most common symptoms of pituitary ademona
decreased growth hormone and gonadotropin
increased prolactin --> galactorrhea, growth hormone excess --> acromegaly, gigantism,
excess corticotropin --> Chushing's disease.
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