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Glossary of Civ to 1660 Chapter 1

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Homo sapiens
Our own species which dates back roughly 200,000 years.
culture
Way of life invented by a group passed on by teaching.
Paleolithic
Greek for "old stone". Began with first use of stone tools. The first period in cultural development that ended around 10,000 B.C.E
Neolithic
"New stone" age, dating back 10,000 years to when people living in some parts of the Middle East made advances in the production of stone tools and shifted from hunting and gathering to agriculture.
Bronze Age
(3100-1200 B.C.E)
Began with the increasing importance of metal that also ended the stone age.
civilization
Stage in the evolution of organized society that has among its characteristics urbanism, long-distance trade, writing systems, and accelerated technological and social development.
cuneiform
Developed by the Sumerians as the very first writing system ever used, it used several thousand characters, some of which stood for words and some for sounds.
polytheists
Name given to those who worship many gods and/or goddesses
Upper Egypt
Narrow valley extending 650 miles from Aswan to the border of Lower Egypt.
Lower Egypt
The Nile's 100-mile deep, triangulary shaped delta.
pharoah
The god-kings of ancient Egypt.
nomes
Egyptian districts ruled by regional governors who were called nomarchs.
heiroglyphs
"sacred carving"
Greek name for Egyptian writing. The writing was often used to engrave holy texts on monuments.
Ahura Mazda
The chief deity of Zoroastrianism, the native religion of Persia, Ahura Mazda is the creator of the world, the source of light, and the embodiment of good.
Arammaic
Semitic language spoken widely throughout the Middle East in antiquity.
Phoenicians
Seafaring people (Canaanites and Syrians) who scattered trading colonies from one end of the Mediterranean to the other.
ten lost tribes
Israelites who were scattered and lost to history when the northern kingdom of Israel fell to the Assyrians in 722 B.C.E.
monotheism
Having faith in a single God

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