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Glossary of China Powerpoints

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Bronze
shang dynasty; cast in molds; many pieces put in tombs for more comfortable after-life
Buddhist art
began only showing Buddha but later started showing paradise-like nature scenes; Buddhism very popular so there are lots of great Buddhit pieces of art
Painting
organized way of showing objects in space; no light of shadow; made on silk; a single object focus in Sung dynasty
Lanscape painting
vast and orderly view; related Confucian and Taoist beliefs about nature
Poetry
supposed to represent inner peace; usually found on paintings
Calligraphy
often used to write poetry; most respected form of art; small brushstrokes needed
Sculpture
were master craftsmen; produced fine bronze; stone used a lot in religious sculpture; Qin emperor tomb contains over 6000 life-size terracotta figures
Architecture
based on balsnce and symmetry; main building and smaller buildings balanced around it; Feng Shui has a lot to do with all aspects of building
Houses
face south to block north wind and to get most sunlight; incorporate feng shui; roofs made of tile and framework made of wood; packed earth foundations
Feng Shui
used to create harmony and balance; achieved by repositioning things; feng = wind and shui = water; main goal was to keep Chi flowing
Roofs
Buddhist belief point would ward off evil spirits; made of ceramic tiles; mythical figures and corners and peaks
Great wall
used to protect Chinese from invading Mongolians but didn’t work; is the only man-made thing that can be seen from space; bodies of workers that died (over 1 million) inside wall; built during Qin dynasty
Origins
first recorded over 2000 ya
Principles
prevention/balance
Chi
good energy
Yin
solid/passive
Yang
hollow/active
Theory of the Five Elements
each organ is either yin or yang and either fire/water/wood/metal/earth; each of the five elements controls one element; so all organs control other organs
Herbal Medecines
different herbs said to redirect Chi
Aromatherapy
revolved around idea of redirecting Chi but just breath burning herbs
Dietary therapy
a lot of tea drank
Acupuncture
uses needles to puncture the body at the meridian points; specific points correspond with certain organs
Acupressure
putting pressure on the meridian points
Moxibustion
burning moxa on or near specific points on the body
Meridian channels
the lines that connect to different organs along the body
Massage
putting pressure on meridian points
Tai Chi
for better breathing; means balanced Chi
History
derives from Han-Tibeten; separated into Old and Middlee Chinese
Mandarin
most spoken form of Chinese; based on a bejing dialect; spoken mostly by higher class people
Cantonese
comes from Canton
Guangozhou
was capital of Cantonese
Hong Kong
capital of Cantonese now
Minorities
55 minorites; some are Tibeten/ LoLo/ Mongolian/ Miao/ Tai
Old Chinese
Shang first to speak it; official language of Chin dynasty
Middle Chinese
spoken during Sui/ Tang/ Song dynasties; not based on an alphabet
Characters
oracle bones and bronze inscribed on; 121 AD = first Chinese dictionary
Pictographs
originally pictures of things
Self explanatory
self explanatory
Associative compounds
formed by combining two or more elements
Pictophonetic
two parts: meaning and sound
Phonetic loan
another way of using existing characters
Mutually explanatory
very common ways of being interpreted and are both explained
Phonology
four major tones to every syllable in mandarin
Southern cuisine
dim sum; Cantonese cooking; stir frying; boiling
Northern Cuisine
influenced by Mongolian cuisine; no rice; wheat; barley; millet; soybeans
Eastern/Western Cuisine
rice; wheat; seafood; bamboo; fresh vegetables; soy sauce; noodles
Sichuan/Central Cuisine
4000 dishes; flower pepper; “a hundred flavors”; soy sauce
Methods/Techniques
stir fry; deep frying; steaming; red stewing; boiling; roasting; cold mixing; poaching
Soup
served during/after dinner; eaten cold usually; basis is stock/broth
Tea drinking
helps digestion; fermentation; Yan Di (emperor) saved from being poisoned by tea→started being used medicinally
5 tastes
sweet; bitter; sour; salty; pungent
Fortune cookies
2 theories of origin; have Chinese association
Types of performing arts
shadow puppets; opera; drama/comedy; group dance; lion dance; acrobatics
Theatre
often musical and sometimes had dance; entertained emperor
Theatre costume
heavy make-up; silk dresses; fur to celebrate animals; many masks
Dance
communicate w/gods; used to pray to spirits; drum beats induced trance
Elements of dance
sleeve/silk dancing; drums; big troupes; military representation;little dialogue
Meanings of dance
represent battles or unity; ancestor worship; honored grain gods or animals; celebrated Buddha; rhythmic musical dance linked to spirit world
Acrobatics
began in Warring States Period
Traditional Acrobatic Arts
cycling acts; tight-wire acts; hoop diving; sprong board acrobatics; lion dance; meteor juggling (glass orbs); Wushu (group gymastics); conjuring of water/fire/fish; pole climbing

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