Glossary of Child Psychology Unit 1
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- List (with ages) Freud's psychosexual stages in order.
- Oral - birth to 12/18 months
Anal - 12/18 months to 3 years
Phallic - 3 to 6 years
Latent - 6 years to puberty
Genital - puberty to early adulthood
- Explain Freud's oral psychosexual stage
- baby’s source of pleasure involves mouth (sucking and feeding)
- Explain Freud's anal stage of development.
- Sexual gratification is derived from toliet training (expelling feces).
- Explain Freud's phallic stage of development.
- They are attached to the parent of the opposite sex, and are identifying with the parent of the same sex.
- Explain Freud's latent stage of development.
- Relative calm between the stages.
- Explain Freud's genital stage of development.
- sexual impulses and maturity
- List (with ages) the eight psychosocial stages that Erikson constructed.
- Basic trust vs. mistrust - (birth to 12/18 months)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt - (12/18 months - 3 years)
Initiative vs. guilt - (3 to 6 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority - (6 yrs. to puberty)
Identity vs. Identity confusion (puberty to young adult)
Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adult)
Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood)
Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)
- Explain Erikson's stage: Basic trust vs. Mistrust
- baby develops a sense of whether world is a good and safe place, virtue=hope
- Explain Erikson's stage of automony vs. self doubt
- child develops a balance of independence and self sufficiency over shame and doubt virtue=will
- Explain Erikson's theory of initiative vs. guilt.
- child develops initiative when trying out new activities and is not overwhelmed by guilt, virtue=purpose
- Explain Erikson's stage of industry vs. inferiority
- child must learn skills of culture or face feelings of incompetence virtue=skill
- Explain Erikson's theory of identity vs. identity confusion.
- adolescent must determine own sense of self virtue=fidelity
- Explain Erikson's theory of intimacy vs. isolation.
- person seeks to make commitments to others, if unsuccessful, mmay suffer from isolation virtue=love
- Explain Erikson's stage of generativity vs. Stagnation.
- mature adult is concerned with establishing and guiding the next generation virtue-care
- Explain Erikson's theory of integrity vs. despair.
- person achieves acceptance of own life, death, despair virtue-wisdom
- List (with ages) Piaget's cognitive stages.
- Sensorimotor (birth to age 2)
Preoperational (2 to 7 years)
Concrete operations (7 to 11 years)
Formal operations (11 to adulthood)
- Describe Piaget's four stages of cognitive thinking.
- Sensorimotor (birth to 2 yrs) infant gradually becomes able to organize activities in relation to the environment through sensory and motor activity
Preoperational (2 to 7) child develops a representational system and uses symbols to represent people, places, and events, language and imaginative play are important, thinking is still not logical
Concrete operations (7 to 11) child can solve problems logically if they are focused on the here and now, but cannot think abstractly
Formal operations (11 years through adult) person can think abstractly, deal with hypothetical situations, and think about possibilities
- What is classical conditioning?
- learning based on associating a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that ordinarily does elicit the response
- What is operant conditioning?
- Learning based on reinforcement or punishment
- What is reinforcement?
- a stimulus that encourages repetition of a desired behavior
- Describe the difference between positive and negative reinforcement.
- Pos. Reinforcement: giving a reward
Neg. Reinforcement: encourages repetition by removing an aversive event
- What is the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement?
- Punishment is a stimulus that discourages behavior, wheras negative reinforcement encourages repitition because of the removal of an adverse effect.
- What is the social learning theory?
- theory that behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models
- what is the cognitive theory?
- that thought processes are central to development
- What is a scheme?
- Piaget’s term for organized patterns of behavior used in different situations
- What is the difference between assimilation and accomodation?
- Piaget’s term for incorporation of new information into an existing cognitive structure / changes in a cognitive structure to include new information
- what is a correlation?
- statistical relationship between variables
- What are some advantages and disadvantages to a case study?
- Adv. Flexibility, detailed picture of one person’s behavior and development
Dis. May not generalize to others, conclusions are not directly testable
- What is a longitudinal study?
- study design to assess changes in a sample over time, study the same children over time to see changes, similarities
- What is a cross sectional study?
- study design in which people of different ages re assessed on one occasion, different aged children are observed at the same time to see differences
- Fertilization of egg
- union of sperm and ovum fuse to produce a zygote
- What is the difference between dizyotic and monozyotic twins?
- Dizygotic (two egg) twins – twins conceived by the union of two different ova (or a single ovum that has split) with two different sperm cells, fraternal twins
Monozygotic (one egg) twins – twins resulting form the division of a single zygote after fertilization, identical twins
- chemical that carries inherited instructions for the formation and function of body cells
- small segments of DNA located in definite positions of particular chromosomes
- coils of DNA that carry the genes
- What is dominant vs. recessive genes, and who studied this?
- when a child receives contradictory alleles, the dominant one is expressed, when a child receives identical recessive alleles, the recessive one will be expressed
- What is the difference between homozygous and heterozygous?
- possessing two identical alleles for a trait / possessing two different alleles for a trait
- what ist he difference between a genotype and a phenotype?
- genetic makeup of a person, containing both expressed and unexpressed characteristics / observable characteristics of a person
- What is tay-sachs disease
- degenerative disease of the brain and nerve cells, resulting in death before the age 5
- fluid withdrawn to show chromosomes and to detect infection or abnormality
- chronic villus sampling
- small piece of placenta is removed to test tissues, dna, chromosomes to detect any problems
- prenatal medical procedure using high frequency sound waves to detect the outline of a fetus and its movements, so as to determine whether a pregnancy is progressing normally
- characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations
- germinal stage
- first 2 weeks of prenatal development, characterized by rapid cell division, increasing complexity and differentiation and implantation in the wall of the uterus
- fetal stage
- final stage of gestation (from 8 weeks to birth) characterized by increased detail of body parts and greatly enlarged body size
- embryonic stage
- second stage of gestation, 2 – 8 weeks, rapid growth and development of major body systems and organs
- list the three stages of pregnancy with ages.
- germanic - first two weeks
embryonic - 2 weeks to 8 weeks
fetal - 8 weeks until birth
- critical period
- specific time when a given event or its absence has the greatest impact on development
- capable of causing birth defects
- classes to distract from pain, breathing and exercises
- caesarian section
- delivery of a baby by surgical removal from the uterus
- low birth weight
- weight of less than 5/5 pounds at birth because of prematurely or beings small for date
- infants born before completely the thirty seventh week of gestation
- standard measurement of a newborn’s condition, appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration
- sickle cell anemia
- deformed, fragile red blood cells that can clog the blood vessels, depriving the body of oxygen, symptoms include severe pain, stunted growth, frequent infections, leg ulcers, gallstones, susceptibility to pneumonia and stroke
- natural childbirth
- method of childbirth that seeks to prevent pain by eliminating the mother’s fear through education about the physiology of reproduction and training in breathing and relaxation during delivery
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