Glossary of Child Passenger Safety

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How do restraints prevent injuries?
1. Prevent ejection
2. Contact the body at the strongest parts of its structure
3. Spread forces over a wide area of the body putting less stress on any one part.
4. Allow the body to slowly ride down the crash
5. Protect the head and spinal cord.
What are 5 reasons for incorrect installations?
1. Lack of information
2. Lack of instruction
3. Failure to read instructions
4. Confusing instructions
5. CRS and vehicle incompatibilites
What are the three issues of Child Passenger Safety?
1. Non use
2. Misuse
3. Incompatibility
What are the three types of belt retractors?
1. Automatic locking retractor (ALR)
2. Emergency locking retractor (ELR)
3. Switchable retractor
What diseases kill more people than motor vehicles?
Cancer, heart disease, and stroke.
What are the types of Latch plates?
1. Locking latch plate
2. sliding latch plate
3. sewn-on latch plate
4. switchable latch plate
What percent are child restraint systems effective in reducing deaths for infants in passenger cars?
What are the 3 requirements of FMVSS 208?
1. seat belts in all seating positions
2. lap/shoulder belts in outboard positions
3. Frontal airbags
Definition of a frontal crash.
the most frequent but not necessarily the most severe causing fatalities.
What is the misuse rank in WY?
What are the four variables in a crash?
1. Host (human) variables
2. Vector (vehicle) variables
3. Physical environment variables
4. Socioeconomic environment variables
What are friendly interiors?
collapsible steering wheels, padded knobs, etc.
According to NCSA what is the precentage of non-use?
What are combination child seats?
a type of forward facing child restraint that is used with an internal harness system to secure a child up to 40 lbs and then, with aremoval of the internal harness, is used as a high back belt positioning booster (BPB) seat.
What are the two most dangerous crash events?
Rotations (spins) and Ejection
What types of air bags are there?
1. Frontal air bags-driver, passenger, and knee
2. Side impact air bags-seat mounted, door mounted, side impact head protection system
MVC account for what percent of unintentional childhood injury-related deaths?
What are required on CPS labels?
1. Manufacturer's ID
2. Model number and date
3. Basic information
4. Size guidelines
5. Air bag warnings
Definition of lateral crash.
Side impacts are the most deadly.
What does the amendment to 213 relate to?
child restraints and LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children) which means that beginning Sept 1, 1999 all child restraint systems manufactured on or after this date must meet a 28" excursion safety limit in addition to the existing 32" head excursion limit
What are the four types of crashes?
1. Frontal
2. Lateral
3. Rear-end
4. Rollover
How tight should the harness be?
You should not be able to pinch any slack over the shoulders.
What percent of child restraint systems are effective in reducing toddler deaths?
What are the two types of vehicle belt systems?
1. lap belts
2. lap/shoulder
What is Sir Isaac Newton's theory?
An object in motion continues to remain in motion at the original speed until acted on by an outside force.
What adjustments have been made to "Second Generation" or "next generation" air bags?
depowered or adjusted by manufacturer to a lower deployement level.
Definition of rear-end crash.
occur when both vehicles are moving forward or when the front vehicle is stopped and account for 3 1/2% of fatalities.
Define switchable (ALR/ELR) retractors.
retractor that usually functions as an ELR or can be transformed into an ALR to secure a child restraint
What is the total annual cost of MVC deaths & injuries for children?
$36 billion.
What is the precentage of unrestrained child deaths?
more than half (61%)
What are the three types of collisons in a crash?
1. Vehicle collision
2. Human collision
3. Internal collision
What is the primary role of seat belts--any restraints?
prevent ejection
What are the three phases in a crash?
1. Pre-crash
2. Crash
3. Post-crash
What do crash test dummies represent?
an average size (50th precentile) child of the age specified
What is NHTSA?
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration-an agency within the US D.O.T. that deals with setting performance requirements for motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment.
Why are misuse rates so high?
1. All socio-economic and education levels are presented
2. There are many combinations of CRSs and Vehicles
3. Many caregivers don't read instructions
4. Instructions are frequently complicated or CR instructions may differ from vehicle
5. Hand-me-down CRSs often have missing parts or instructions
6. There is tremendous consumer misunderstanding of crash dynamics
For every injury related deaths, how many children are hospitalized and how many need medical care?
45 need hospitalization and 1100 need medical care.
What is the TREAD Act?
Transportation Recall Enhancement Account-ability, and Documentation Act.
which mandates NHTSA to consider rulemaking in 10 testing for effects and head injuries in side and rear impacts, 2) amending FMVSS 213 to cover children up to 80 lbs., 3) use of wider range of anthropometric test dummy sizes, 4) providing consumers with CRS and vehicle compatibility information, 5) prescribe clearer and simpler labels in instructions, 6) include CRS in vehicle crash testing, 7) develop CRS rating program, 8) conduct BPB use and effectiveness ratings, 9) develop strategic plan for BPB use in 4 - 8 year olds.
What is injury?
Injury is caused by the transfer of energy to tissue.
What is the main goal at a checkpoint?
To have the vehicle (CRS) leave safer than it arrived
Definition of rollerover crash.
when the vehicle rolls over onto its side or top (upside down), one time or many times.
Air bags are deployed at what speed?
200 mph
Restraining force is what formula?
weight x speed = force
Who is required to self certify?
What is "ride-down"?
an extention of time during a crash that thte deceleration forces are experienced by the occupant.
What are the five types of restraints for children?
1. Rear-facing only restraints
2. Convertible restraints
3. Forward-facing only
4. Special needs CRS
5. Vehicle seat belts
What are the 5 functions of NHTSA?
1. Education
2. Enforcement
3. Research
4. Regulations
5. Compliance Testing & Defect Monitoring
What are 3 misuses of seat belts?
1. lap belt too high
2. belt too loose
3. shoulder belt under the arm
What absorbs the force of a frontal collision?
Shell (car seat)--in rear facing
Parents who installed car seats failed to use what during installation?
Instruction book
There should be movement of no more that how many inches in a correctly installed CRS?
1" side-to-side or forward movement
What are the parts of a CRS?
1. Shell and frame
2. Harness and/or shield
3. Harness adjustment mechanism
4. Splitter plate
5. Harness slots
6. Harness retainer clip or tie
7. Buckles
8. Recline adjustment mechanism
9. Recline indicator
10. Safety belt path(s)
11. Seat padding
12. Labels
13. Instruction book and storage location
14. Registration card
15. Regular locking clip
16. Lock Offs/Built-in Locking clips
17. Detachable base
18. Tether anchor strap
What are the factors to consider when selecting restraints?
1. Safety
2. Appropriate for age, size, physical tolerance/limit, & development
3. Compatibility
4. Convenience factors
5. Comfort factors
What does FMVSS 225 govern?
LATCH anchorage system in the vehicle.
Define ELR.
a retractor on a safety belt system that locks in response to rapid decelration of the vehicle. ELRs respond to rapid extraction of the belt or the sudden deceleration of the vehicle or both.
What is the law for WY CPS for under 5 and over 40 lbs?
Title 31
What is the Presidental Initiative for Increasing Seat Belt Use Nationwide?
Increase seat belt use:
85% by 2000
90% by 2005
Reduce child occupant fatalities:
15% by 2000
25% by 2005
What is meant by excursion?
distance traveled by an occupant or test dummy in the direction of impact during a crash
What does FMVSS 213 govern?
performance standards for child restraint systems up to 50 pounds--including crashworthiness, labeling, buckle release pressure and other factors.
Children can be moved into a seat belt at what criteria?
they must be 57" tall (4'9")
What is SRS?
Supplemental Restraint System
As a rule, what it the safest position for a car restraint?
center rear of a car
Define ALR.
a safety belt retractor that locks mainitaining fixed length during use
What is the primary role of a CPS technician?
What is the minimum and maximum pressure that can be put on a CPS buckle?
9 to 14 pounds
What are the two types of vehicle occupant protection systems?
1. Passive protection
2. Active protection
What is submarining?
the motion of a body during a crash under certain conditions. When the upper torso is restrained, the pelvis slides under the lap belt and the belt intrudes into the abdomen. When only a lap belt is used, the upper torso can also flex forward and bend and break at the lumbar spine.
The cycle of frontal air bag deployment can last for how long?
deployment can take place in 120 milliseconds
What are the parts of a safety belt?
1. Webbing
2. Anchor points
3. Latch plate
4. Buckle
5. Retractors
What does FMVSS 208 govern?
vehicle restrain systems--seat belts, air bags.
What precent of a CRS base must contact and be supported by the vehicle seat cushion?

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