Glossary of Child Development final set 2

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Defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
A set of capacities for dealing with people and understanding oneself. It involves recognizing and regulating one's own emotions, detecting other's emotions, feeling empathy and sympathy, and cooperating with others.
emotional intelligence
Children may adopt teacher's positive or negative views and start to live up to them.
Self-fufilling prophcecy
The individual's physical and behavioral characteristics, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors
The genetic make-up of an individual
Children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. The way these conflicts are resolved determines the person's ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety
Freud's Psychoanalytic theory
Empahsized that the ego does not just mediate between id impluses and superego demands. It is also a positive force in development. At each stage, it acquires attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society
Erikson's Psychosocial theory
An approach that regards directly observable events-stimuli and responses - as the appropriate focus of study and views the development of behavior as taking places through classical and opernant conditioning.
A theory that emphasizes the role of modeling or obsevational learning, in the development of behavior. Its most recent revision stresses the importance of thinking in social learning and is called social-cognitive theory.
Social learning
An approach that views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows and regrads cognitive development as a continuous process.
information processing
An approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history.
Children are assumed to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture through cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society.
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
Views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the enviornment, from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values and programs.
Brofenbrenner's ecological system
Consists of activites and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings.
Encompasses connections between Microsystems
Made up of social settings that do not contain children but that affect their experiences in immediate settings.
Consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources.
The temporal dimension of his model
A type of genetic-enviornmental correlation in whcih individuals actively choose enviornments that complement their heredity.
What are the three phases of prenatal development, in order?
3- fetus
Lasts about 2 weeks, implantation, the placenta, and the unbilical cord.
Zygote period
Lasts from implantation to 8th week of pregnancy. The most rapid changes take place, as the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs.
Embryo period
The "growing and finishing" phase. Longest phase of prenatal dev, in which the organism increases in size rapidly
Fetus period
What do newborns imitate?
Facial expressions:
Open mouth, sticking out their tounge, and sad faces
Smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping
Fine motor skills
Control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, such as crawling, standing, and walking.
Gross motor skills
What is the growth rate during early childhood?
2 to 3 inches and 5 pounds per year
How do 3 year olds draw and write?
Tadpole-like drawings. Scribble when they try to write.
How do 4 year olds draw and write?
They add features, such as eyes, noses, mouths,hair, fingers, and feet. They can write lines when trying to write letters, but often incorperate drawings into their writing.
How do 6 year olds draw and write?
Draw more complex drawings, but still have perceptual distorions in their drawings. Between 4 and 6, children begin to realize that writing stands for language.
What occurs during the 2nd stage of labor?
The delivery of the baby happens. Can take from 50 to 20 minutes, and the uterus contracts along with the mother pushing.
Consists of a Plexiglas-covered table with a platform at the center, a shallow side with a checkerboard pattern several feet under the glass. The babies would steadily cross the shallow side, but showed fear of the deep side.
Visual cliff
A parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked meat or by coming in contact with the feces of infected cats. During the first trimester, it leads to eye and brain damage.
An approach in which measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
Normative approach
A view that regards development as gradually augumenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with.
Continuous development
A view in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
Discontinuous development
Debate among theorists about whether genetic or enviornmental factors are more important determinants of develpoment and behavior.
Nature vs. nurture
The fact that few of us can retrieve events that happened to us before the age of 3.
Infantile amnesia
Most common middle childhood vision problem
Myopia, or nearsightedness
Most common ADHD treatment
stimulant medication
The ability to think about language as a system
Metalinguistic awareness
An orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior.
What type of parenting style would a non-custodial father show?
these infants use the parents as a secure bas. When separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it is becasue the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger. When the parent returns, they actively seek contact, and their crying is reduc
Secure attachment
These infants seem unresponsive to the parent when she is present. When she leaves, they are not usually distressed, and they react to the stranger in much the same way as to the parent. During reunion, they avoid or are slow to greet the parent, and whe
Aviodant attachment
Before separation, these infants seek closeness to the parent and often fail to exploer. When she leaves, they are usually distressed, and on her return, they mix clinginesss with angry, resistive behavior, struggling when held, and sometimes hitting and
Resistant attachment
This pattern reflects the greatest insecurity. At reunion, these infants show a variety of confused, contradictory behaviors. About 5% show this pattern.
Disorganized/disoriented attachment.
A procedure that takes the baby through 8 short episodes, in which brief separations from and reunions with the caregiver occur in an unfamiliar playroom. Asses the quality of the attachment bond.
Strange situation

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