Glossary of Child Development Exam 3 2
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- generally accepted definition of IQ:
- -acting and thinking in ways that are goal directive and adaptive
-allows different cultures to have specific criteria
- is IQ culturally variable or not?
- it is culturally variable- its measure is different- the competencies are different for each culture
- What was Binet asked to do?
- -create a test that determined which children should be in which grade
- How did WWII contribute to the development of IQ tests?
- -the army had to find out whihc jobs to give to which people
- Binet believed intelligence was:
- adaptation to the environment
- how is IQ calculated?
- mental age divided by chronological age
- Who were the first people to develop IQ test?
- Stamford and Binet
- What did psychometricians believe about the degree of variation among IQ scores?
- They believed there was a HIGH DEGREE of variation in IQs
- What is the Information Processing view of intelligence?
- Intelligence is a series of steps taken to solve problems through higher order thinking
- psychometricians =
- What are the 4 components of intelligence?
(according to IP theory ? - ask Anselmi if this is who made these categories)
- 1) Strategies
3) Speed of information processing
- strategies =
- effortful mental operations to accomplish a goal
- knowledge base =
- the amount of information you have
vocabulary for example
- metacognition =
- understadning of own basic cognitive processes
- What do men tend to be better at in terms of intelligence?
- speed of information processing
- The 3 components of Sternberg's view of intelligence
- 1) componential/combonential/ analytic part
3) Experiental Sub theory
- the componential/analytic component of Sternberg's theory of Intelligence =
- -refers to mechanisms of learning and analyzing
-how we encode info
-everything IP would say is essential
- the contextual aspect of Sternberg's theory of intelligence =
- -how we apply intelligence to everyday
- experiential sub theory of Sternberg's theory of intelligence =
- -how well we can deal with novelty of new tasks
- Gardener's 5 criteria for an Intelligence:
- 1) You could tell there was an intelligence if when brain damage occured specific abilities were ruined
2) If you could show there wer geniuses or idiot savants
3) Evolutionary history and purpose of an intelligence
4) Can test skill with psychological measures -- defined in terms of system
5) They have developmental history-- has an endpoint -- DON'T GET THIS ONE
- apply the theories of intelligence by 1) Gardener 2)Piaget 3) Psychometrics 4) Sternberg to a particular situation
- intelligence does not equal
- what are the experiential/environmental explanations for IQ
- ? see book
- What are the genetic explanations for IQ
- ? look in book
- what is the reciprocal explanation for IQ?
- ? look in book
- most researchers believe this is the % of Intelligence that has a genetic/biological basis
- 30-80% so 50% basically
- How do we study the impact that biology has on IQ? - 2 ways
- 1) twin studies
2) adoption studies
- correlations for IQ for identical twins reared apart
what does this show?
- - .86
-shows that biology has an important impact on IQ since in these instances the variable of environment is different
- what is the correlation for IQ for siblings reared together:
- - . 47
- what is the correlation for identical twins reared apart?
- - .72
- what is the correlation for fraternal twins reared together?
- - .60
- what do twin and adoption studies show about the correlation between biology and IQ?
- there is a positive correlation between genes and IQ
- ask Anselmi if this is true its my paraphrase
- the less similar the genetic information the __________lower/higher_______ the correlation
- how can the concept of niche picking be applied to the theory of IQ
- ? ask Anselmi
- how can lerner's model be applied to the thoeries of IQ?
- look up in book or ask anselmi
- describe scarr and weisburg's study?1
- -children from poor families adopted into middleclass families
-IQ scores were not identical to biological parents, but were not as high as adoptive parnts and siblings who were biological (biologically related to adopted children or to adoptive parents)
- what did Scarr and Weisburg's study show?
- - ?
- what has been observed about the "headstart" program?
- -We have seen improvements in IQ scroes through this program
-but the progress can be negated if the children are taken out of the program
- what did the Absenian Project show?
- are interventions effective in improving the IQs of disadvantaged children?
- yes- its been shown that when children were given post natal care and mothers are taught to care for children- improvements were made
- in what way does home environment improve IQ?
- -evidence suggest that middle class parents value school achievement so the home environment impacts school achievement and therefore IQ score
- how are IQ and school achievement correlated?
- significance of intelligence test- validity, reliabilty, reliability, stability and predictability
- stereotype threat- Claude Steele?
- entity vs. incremental theory- Carol Dweck =
- culture free and fair test =
- 3 parts of Intuitive view of Intelligence:
- 1) Practical Problem solving ability
2) Verbal ability
3) Social competance
- Pratcical problem solving ability:
(Sternberg's triarchic view)
- These skills include getting to the heart of a problem, interpreting information accurately, seeing all aspects of a problem and reasoning logically
- Verbal Ability:
(Sternberg's triarchic view)
- These skills include speaking and writing clearly and articulately, dealing effectively with people, having details knowlegde about a particular field, reading widely and with good comprhension, and having a good vocbulary
- Social competence:
(Sternberg's triarchic view)
- These skills include displaying curiosity, being sensitive to the needs and desires of others, being on time for appointments, having a social conscience, and making carefully considered and fair judgments
- examples of questions Stanford and Binet may use to determine if a person has Information:
- 1) how many legs do you have
2) What must you do to make water freeze
3)Who discovered the North Pole
4)what is the capital of france?
- Example of questions Stanford and Binet may use to determine if an individual can find similarities between objects
- Whats similar about
1) a crayon and a pencil
2) tea and coffee
3) an inch and a mile
4)binoculars and a microscope
- Examples of questions Stanford and Binet might use to determine an individuals arithmetic skills?
- 1) if you get one piece of candy and then another, how many do you have?
2) At 12 cents each, how much will 4 bars of soap cost?
3) If a suit sells for 1/2 the ticket price, what is the cost of a $120 suit
- Example of questions to test comprehension in Stanford and Binet's study
- 1) Why do we wear shoes
2) What is the thing to do if you see someone drop her packages
3) In what two ways is a lamp better than a candle
4) Why are we tried by a jury of our peers
- gardener's multiple intelligences:
- 1) Linguistic
5) Bodily- kinesthetic
- examples of spatial intelligence:
- 1) navigation
2) finding out how to fit suitcases into trunk of a car
- examples of musical intelligence:
- 1) composing
2) singing/ playing
3) appreciating the structure of a piece
4) perfect pitch
- used in relating to OTHERS
- used in understanding OURSELVES
- ask anselmi about the risk factors sheet
- in intelligence packet
- what doe spsychometrics do?
- measures psychological traits
- what does g represent in the psychometrician view of intelligence
- g = all factors that go into intelligence
- what is spearman's view of IQ
- intelligence is a single domain general factor
- what did gilford believe about intelligence?
- - he had 18.0 unique factors that defined intelligence
- what are 4 things that IQ are highly correlated with
- 1) verbal ability
2) perceptual speed
3) social class/ parents education
4) job success / socioeconomic status
- What did McKlellan's retrospective study of Med students show?
- that there was no difference in the success of med school students who had an A grade average v. a C grade average
- what is the problem with the validity of IQ tests?
- -IQ doesn't have a concrete definition so it is difficult to measure
- is there stability across individuals in intelligence?
- yes there is stability across individuals
- What is Piaget's view of intelligence?`
- -biological and psychological adaptation to environment as measured through acquisition of thinking at each stage
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