Glossary of Child Development: Chapter 1 (Themes and Theories)
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- In Piagetian theory, a component of adaptation; process of modification in thinking (schemes) that takes place when old ways of understanding something no longer fit.
- In Piagetian theory, the inborn tendency to adjust or become more attuned to conditions imposed by the environment; takes place through assimilation and accommodation.
- In Piagetian theory, a component of adaptation; process of interpreting an experience in terms of current ways (schemes) of understanding things.
- Behavior analysis
- Learning theory perspective that explains the development of behavior according to the principles of classical and operant conditioning.
- In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the constantly changing temporal component of the environment that can influence development.
- Cognitive-developmental theory
- Theoretical orientation, most frequently associated with Piaget, emphasizing the active construction of psychological structures to interpret experience.
- Physical and psychological changes in the individual over a lifetime.
- Developmental psychology
- Systematic and scientific study of changes in human behaviors and mental activities over time.
- Dynamic systems theory
- A theoretical orientation that explains development as the emerging organization arising from the interaction of many different processes.
- Ecological systems theory
- Bronfenbrenner’s theory that development is influenced by experiences arising from broader social and cultural systems as well as a child’s immediate surroundings.
- Theory that environmental experiences shape the individual; more specifically, that all knowledge is derived from sensory experiences.
- In Piagetian theory, an innate self-regulatory process that, through accommodation and assimilation, results in more organized and powerful schemes for adapting to the environment.
- Theoretical orientation and discipline concerned with the evolutionary origins of behavior and its adaptive and survival value in animals, including humans.
- In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, environmental settings that indirectly affect the child by influencing the various microsystems forming the child’s immediate environment.
- In Eriksonian psychosocial theory, the acceptance of both self and society, a concept that must be achieved at every stage but is especially important during adolescence.
- Form of learning, difficult to reverse, during a sensitive period in development in which an organism tends to stay near a particular stimulus.
- Individual differences
- Unique characteristics that distinguish a person from other members of a larger group.
- Information processing
- Theoretical approach that views humans as having a limited ability to process information, much like computers.
- Relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of such experiences as exploration, observation, and practice.
- In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, major historical events and the broad values, practices, and customs promoted by a culture.
- In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the environment provided by the interrelationships among the various settings of the microsystem.
- In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the immediate environment provided in such settings as the home, school, workplace, and neighborhood.
- Nature-nurture debate
- Ongoing theoretical controversy over whether development is the result of the child’s genetic endowment or the kinds of experiences the child has had.
- Observational learning
- Learning that takes place by simply observing another person’s behavior.
- In Piagetian theory, the inborn tendency for structures and processes to become more systematic and coherent. Also memory strategy in which individuals reorder items to be remembered on the basis of category or some other higher-order relationship.
- Psychosocial theory of development
- Erikson’s theory that personality develops through eight stages of adaptive functioning to meet the demands framed by society.
- In Piagetian theory, the mental structure underlying a coordinated and systematic pattern of behaviors or thinking applied across similar objects or situations.
- Sensitive period
- Brief period during which specific kinds of experiences have significant positive or negative consequences for development and behavior. Also called critical period.
- Social learning theory
- Theoretical approach emphasizing the importance of learning through observation and imitation of behaviors modeled by others.
- Social policy
- The programs and plans established by local, regional, or national public and private organizations and agencies designed to achieve a particular social purpose or goal.
- Sociohistorical theory
- Vygotsky’s developmental theory emphasizing the importance of cultural tools, symbols, and ways of thinking that the child acquires from more knowledgeable members of the community.
- Developmental period during which the organization of thought and behavior is qualitatively different from that of an earlier or later period.
- Set of ideas or propositions that helps to organize or explain observable phenomena.
- Change modify
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