Glossary of Chemixtry Exam 2

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the distance between two points on adjacent waves that have the same phase, for example, the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs.
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number of complete waves passing a point in a given period of time (cycles per second)
a plot of the intensity of light (photons perunit of time) as a function of the wavelength or freuquency of light
elcetromagnetic radiation
radition that consists of oscilating electric and magnetic fields that travel throguh space at the same rate (the speed of light in a vaccume)
Photons (quanta)
A massless particle of light whos energy is given by HV where V is the frequency of the light and H is plancks constant
ground state
the state of an atom or molecule in which all of the electrons are in their lowest possible energy levels
excited state
the unstable state of an atom or molecule in which at least one electron does not have it lowest possible energy
a collection of orbitals with the same value of the principle quantum number N
a group of atomic orbatals with the same N and L quantum
refers to atoms and ions that have identical electron configurations
Atomic Radius
One half the distance between the nucli centers of two like atoms in a molecule
Ionization Energy
the energy needed to remove a mole of electrons from a mole of atoms in the gas phase
Electron Affinity
The energy change when a mole of electrons is added to a mole of atoms in the gas phase
Lattice Energy
Enthalpy of formation of one mole of an ionic solid from its seperated gaseous ions
a measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract bonding electrons to itself
Oxidation Number (state)
A comparison of the charge of an uncombined atom with its actual charge or its relative charge in a compound
The loss of electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule leading to an increase in oxidation number
the gain of electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule, leading to a decrease in its oxidation number
Oxidizing Agent
the substance that accepts electrons and is reduced in an oxidation-reduction reaction
Reducing Agent
the atom, molecule, or ion that donates electrons and is oxidized in an oxidation-reduction reaction
Main Group Elements
elements in the 8A groups to the left and right of the transition elements in the periodic table; the S and P block elements
Transition Elements
elements that lie in rows 4-7 of the periodic table in which D or F subshells are being filled; comprising scandium through zinc, yttirum through cadmium, lanthanum through mercury, actianium and elemtns of higher atomic number.
Alkali Metals
The group 1A elements in the periodic table except H
Alkaline Earth Metals
elements in group 2A of the periodic table
the elements in group 7A of the periodic table
Noble Gasses
gasious elements in group bA; the least reactive elements
Heat Capacity
the quantity of energy that must be transfered to an object to raise its temp. by 1 degree celcius
Specific Heat Capactiy
the quantity of energy that must be transferred to one gram of a substance to increase its temperatue by 1 degree celcius

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